1 Introduction

1.1 Preamble

1.2 The KaSim engine

1.3 The KaSa static analyser

1.4 Support

2 Installation

2.1 Using precompiled binaries

2.2 Obtaining the sources

2.3 Compilation

2.4 Compilation of KaSa graphical interface

3 The kappa language

3.1 General structure

3.2 Agent and token signatures

3.3 Sited-graph pattern: Kappa expression

3.3.1 Graph syntax

3.3.2 Pattern syntax

3.3.3 Link type

3.4 Rules

3.4.1 Chemical notation rules

3.4.2 Edit notation rules

3.4.3 Hybrid rules

3.4.4 Rates

3.4.5 Ambiguous molecularity

3.5 Variables

3.6 Initial conditions

4 The command line

4.1 General usage

4.2 Main options

4.3 Advanced options

4.4 Example

4.5 Interactivity

5 A simple model

5.1 ABC.ka

5.2 Some runs

6 Advanced concepts

6.1 Perturbation language

6.1.1 Adding or deleting agents during a simulation

6.1.2 Get a snapshot of the mixture (to deﬁne a new initial state)

6.1.3 Interrupt simulation

6.1.4 Changing the value of a token

6.1.5 Causality analysis

6.1.6 Flux maps

6.1.7 Updating kinetic rates on the ﬂy

6.1.8 Combining several eﬀects in a single perturbation

6.1.9 Printing values during a simulation

6.1.10 Add an entry in the output data

6.2 Implicit signature

6.3 Simulation packages

6.4 Simulation parameters conﬁguration

7 The KaSa static analyser

7.1 General usage

7.2 Graphical interface

7.2.1 Launching the interface

7.2.2 The areas of interests

7.2.3 The sub-tab 0_Actions

7.2.4 The sub-tab 1_Output

7.3 Reachability analysis

7.4 Local traces

7.5 Contact map

7.6 Inﬂuence map

8 Frequently asked questions

1.1 Preamble

1.2 The KaSim engine

1.3 The KaSa static analyser

1.4 Support

2 Installation

2.1 Using precompiled binaries

2.2 Obtaining the sources

2.3 Compilation

2.4 Compilation of KaSa graphical interface

3 The kappa language

3.1 General structure

3.2 Agent and token signatures

3.3 Sited-graph pattern: Kappa expression

3.3.1 Graph syntax

3.3.2 Pattern syntax

3.3.3 Link type

3.4 Rules

3.4.1 Chemical notation rules

3.4.2 Edit notation rules

3.4.3 Hybrid rules

3.4.4 Rates

3.4.5 Ambiguous molecularity

3.5 Variables

3.6 Initial conditions

4 The command line

4.1 General usage

4.2 Main options

4.3 Advanced options

4.4 Example

4.5 Interactivity

5 A simple model

5.1 ABC.ka

5.2 Some runs

6 Advanced concepts

6.1 Perturbation language

6.1.1 Adding or deleting agents during a simulation

6.1.2 Get a snapshot of the mixture (to deﬁne a new initial state)

6.1.3 Interrupt simulation

6.1.4 Changing the value of a token

6.1.5 Causality analysis

6.1.6 Flux maps

6.1.7 Updating kinetic rates on the ﬂy

6.1.8 Combining several eﬀects in a single perturbation

6.1.9 Printing values during a simulation

6.1.10 Add an entry in the output data

6.2 Implicit signature

6.3 Simulation packages

6.4 Simulation parameters conﬁguration

7 The KaSa static analyser

7.1 General usage

7.2 Graphical interface

7.2.1 Launching the interface

7.2.2 The areas of interests

7.2.3 The sub-tab 0_Actions

7.2.4 The sub-tab 1_Output

7.3 Reachability analysis

7.4 Local traces

7.5 Contact map

7.6 Inﬂuence map

8 Frequently asked questions

3.1 Agent signatureexpression

3.2 Kappa expressions

3.3 Token expressions

3.4 Example of kinetic rates.

3.5 Rate expressions

3.6 Algebraic expressions

3.7 Symbol usable in algebraic expressions

4.1 Command line: main options

4.2 Command line: advanced options

6.1 Perturbation expressions

6.2 User deﬁned parameters

3.2 Kappa expressions

3.3 Token expressions

3.4 Example of kinetic rates.

3.5 Rate expressions

3.6 Algebraic expressions

3.7 Symbol usable in algebraic expressions

4.1 Command line: main options

4.2 Command line: advanced options

6.1 Perturbation expressions

6.2 User deﬁned parameters

Introduction

This manual describes the usage of KaSim and KaSa, the latest implementation of Kappa, one member of the growing family of rule-based languages. Rule-based modelling has attracted recent attention in developing biological models that are concise, comprehensible, easily extensible, and allows one to deal with the combinatorial complexity of multi-state and multi-component biological molecules. Although this manual contains a self-contained description of Kappa, it is not intended as a tutorial on rule-based modeling.

To get an idea of how Kappa is used in a modeling context, the reader can consult the following note Agile modelling of cellular signalling (SOS’08). A longer article, expounding on causal analysis is also available: Rule-based modelling of cellular signalling (CONCUR’07). See also this tutorial: Modelling epigenetic information maintenance: a Kappa tutorial.

KaSim is an open source stochastic simulator of rule-based models [8, 7, 9] written in Kappa. The Kappa language describes site graphs and their local transformations. KaSim takes one or several Kappa ﬁles as input and generates stochastic trajectories of various observables. KaSim implements Danos et al’s implicit state simulation algorithm [5] which adapts Gillespie’s algorithm [14, 15] to rule-based models.

A simulation event corresponds to the application of a rewriting rule, contained in the Kappa ﬁles, to the current graph (also called a mixture). At each step, the next event is selected with a probability which is proportional to the rate of the rule it is an event of. If there are no events, that is to say if none of the rules apply to the current state of the system, one has a deadlock. Note that a given rule will in general apply in many diﬀerent ways; one says it has many instances. The activity of a rule is the number of its instances in the current mixture multiplied by its rate. The probability that the next event is associated to a given rule is therefore proportional to the activity of the rule. Rule activities are updated at each step (see Fig. 1.1). Importantly, the cost of a simulation event is bounded by a constant that is independent of the size of the graph it is applied to [5].

Note that KaSim can only render curves in the svg format. However, data outputs given in a text format can be displayed using any standard plotting software such as gnuplot.

KaSa is an open source static analyser tool of rule-based models [8, 7, 9] written in Kappa. KaSa takes one or several Kappa ﬁles as input and some command line options to toggle on/oﬀ some speciﬁc static analysis. Currently, KaSa can compute the contact map and the inﬂuence map. It can perform reachability analysis [11, 6] as well. Other analyses including model reduction [12, 4, 1] will come soon.

A graphical interface is proposed to navigate through the various options and utilities of KaSa. The compilation of this interface requires labltk and, in particular, tk-dev.

- Kappa language tutorials and downloads: http://kappalanguage.org
- Bug reports should be posted on github: https://github.com/Kappa-_Dev/KaSim/issues
- Questions and answers on the kappa-user mailing list: http://groups.google.com/group/kappa-_users
- Want to contribute to the project? jean.krivine@irif.fr

Installation

The easiest way to use KaSim and KaSa is to use pre-compiled versions available in the release section on the github repository (https://github.com/Kappa-_Dev/KaSim/releases). Download the version that corresponds to your operating system (Windows, Linux or Mac OSX) and rename the downloaded ﬁle into KaSim and KaSa. Note that on Mac OSX or Linux, it might be necessary to give executable permissions to KaSim and KaSa. This can be done using the shell commands: chmod u+x KaSim and chmod u+x KaSa

To test whether your program does work, simply type ./KaSim --version on a terminal, from the directory that contains the binaries. If the version is displayed it means that the binaries are indeed compatible with your OS. Otherwise you may need to compile KaSim from the sources (see next Section).

To obtain KaSim/KaSa you can either use pre-compiled binaries (see previous section) or compile the sources for your architecture by yourself.

To do so, download the source code from https://github.com/Kappa-_Dev/KaSim, make sure you have a recent OCaml compiler (KaSim/KaSa currently requires Ocaml 4.02.3 to compile) as well as ocamlbuild, findlib and the yojson library installed.

You can check if it is the case from a terminal window by typing ﬁrst ocamlfind ocamlopt -v. If it fails or prints a version number too old, then you need to install Ocaml Native compiler that can be downloaded from http://caml.inria.fr/download.en.html and/or ﬁndlib available at http://projects.camlcity.org/projects/findlib.html.

Then, type ocamlfind query yojson. The answer should be a path. If it is not, install yojson using a package manager.

Ocamlbuild is hosted on https://github.com/ocaml/ocamlbuild.

Once OCaml is safely installed, untar KaSim archive and compile following these few steps:

- tar xzvf kasim.tar.gz -d Kappa
- cd Kappa
- make bin/KaSim
- make bin/KaSa

At the end of these steps you should see, in the bin directory of the Kappa directory, an executable ﬁle named KaSim. In order to check the compilation went ﬁne, simply type bin/KaSim --version.

If the tool ocamlbuild is not in your path, you may set the variable OCAMLBINPATH to point to the location of the compiler by doing make OCAMLBINPATH=’the_correct_dir’ bin/KaSim.

The graphical interface of KaSa requires tk-dev and labltk. By default, the graphical interface is not compiled. The compilation of this interface can be toggled on by using the following command: make USE_TK=1 bin/KaSa

Common compilation errors are the following:

- The following error:
/usr/bin/ld: cannot find -ltk

collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status

File "caml_startup", line 1:

Error: Error during linking

Command exited with code 2.occurs when the module tk-dev is not installed.

- The following error:
File "_none_", line 1:

Error: Cannot find file jpflib.cmxa

Command exited with code 2.occurs when ocaml cannot link the labltk library.

Please document the variable LABLTKLIBREP in the Makeﬁle.

The kappa language

A model is represented in Kappa by a set of Kappa File. We use KF to denote the union of the ﬁles that are given as input (to either KaSim or KaSa).

Each line of the KF is interpreted as a declaration except if the line ends by the ' $\setminus $' character. Therefore, in order to write a declaration on several lines, ends every by the last of the lines with a $\setminus $.

Declarations can be: agent and token signatures (Sec. 3.2), rules (Sec. 3.4), variables (Sec. 3.5), initial conditions (Sec. 3.6), perturbations (Sec. 6.1) and parameter conﬁgurations (Sec. 6.4).

The KF’s structure is quite ﬂexible. Neither dividing into several sub-ﬁles nor the order of declarations matters (to the exception of perturbations and variable declarations, see respectively Sections 6.1 and 3.5 for details).

Comments can be used either by inserting the marker # that tells KaSim to ignore the rest of the line or by putting any text between the delimiters /* and */. The combined use of $\setminus $ and # is an alternative way to write comments in the middle of a declaration.

In Kappa there are two entities that can be used for representing biological elements: agents and tokens. Agents are used to represent complex molecules that may bind to other molecules on speciﬁc sites. Tokens are typically used to represent small particles such as ions, ATP, etc. Tokens cannot bind to each other, they can only appear or disappear. In a given model, agents always have a discrete number of instances while tokens may have a continuous concentration.

In order to use agents or tokens in a model, one needs to declare them ﬁrst. Agent signatures constitute a form of typing information about the agents that are used in the model. It contains information about the name and number of interaction sites the agent has, and about their possible internal states. A signature is declared in the KF by the following line:

- %agent: signature_expression

according to the grammar given Table 3.1 where terminal symbols are written in (blue) typed font, and $\mathit{\epsilon}$ stands for the empty list. An identiﬁer Id can be any string generated by a regular expression of the type $\left[a-z\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}A-Z\right]{\left[a-z\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}A-Z\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}0-9\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\text{\_}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}-\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}+\right]}^{\ast}$.

signature_expression | ::= | Id(sig) |

sig | ::= | Id internal_state_list, sig $\mid \mathit{\epsilon}$ |

internal_state_list | ::= | ~Id internal_state_list $\mid \mathit{\epsilon}$ |

For instance the line:

will declare an agent A with 3 (interaction) sites x,y and z with the site y possessing two internal states u and p (for instance for the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of y) and the site z having three possible states $0$, $1$ and $2$. Note that internal states values are treated as untyped symbols by KaSim, so choosing a character or an integer as internal state is purely a matter of convention.

Token signatures are declared using a statement of the form:

The state of the system is represented in Kappa as a sited graph: a graph were edges speciﬁes a site of the node they use. You must think as sites as resources. At most one edge of the graph can use a site of a node (representing an agent in our case). We call this concept the rigidity of Kappa.

The ascii syntax we use to represent sited graphs follows the skeletons (describe formaly in ﬁg 3.2):

- we write the type of the agent and then its interface (the comma separeted list of the state of its sites) between parenthesis.
- When the site is free (is not a member of a edge) you just write its name to represent its state. If it has a internal state, you write it after a ’~’. For example, the graph TODO is written A(x,y~p,z~0)
- When a site is part of an edge, you assign an arbitrary integer identiﬁer $n$
to this edge and you specify the appartenance of the site to this edge by writing
site_name$!n$.
The graph TODO can be reprensented as A(x!23,y~u!4,z~1), A(x!4,y~u!95,z~1), A(x!95,y~u!23,z~1).
Remark Each link identiﬁer appears exactly twice of course. this is a consequence of the regidity of Kappa.

Kappa strength is to describe transformations by only mentionning (and storing) the relevant part of the subgraph required for that transfor;ation to be possible. It plays a key role in resisting combinatorial explosion when writing models. We use the don’t care, don’t write (DCDW) principle. If a transformation occurs independently of the state of a site of an agent, don’t mention it in the pattern to match. The pattern A(x,z) represents an agent of type A whose sites x and z are free but the sites y and z can be in any internal state and the site y can be linked or not to anything.

If the link state of a site does not matter but the internal state does, an ’?’ has to be added after the site name (and internal state). An agent A whose sites x and z are free, y is in state u and z in state 2 is written A(x,y~u?,z~2).

kappa_expression | ::= | agent_expression , kappa_expression $\mid \mathit{\epsilon}$ |

agent_expression | ::= | Id(interface) |

interface | ::= | Id internal_state link_state , interface $\mid \mathit{\epsilon}$ |

internal_state | ::= | $\mathit{\epsilon}$ | ~Id |

link_state | ::= | $\mathit{\epsilon}$ | !n | !_ | ? | !Id.Id |

In standard kappa, in order to require a site to be bound for an interaction to occur, one may use the semi-link construct !_ which does not specify who the partner of the bond is. For instance in the variable: %var: \var{ab}~|A(x!_),B(y!_)| will count the number of As and Bs connected to someone, including the limit case A(x!1),B(y!1). It is sometimes convenient to specify the type of the semi-link, in order to restrict the choice of the binding partner. For instance the variable: %var: \var{ab}~|A(x!y.B),B(y!x.A)|! will count the number of As whose site x is connected to a site y of B, plus the number of Bs whose site y is connected to a site x of A. Note that this still includes the case A(x!1),B(y!1).

Remark Transformations on semi-links and links type indiuce side eﬀects (eﬀect on unmention agents/unmentionned site of agent) and can even don’t make sense at all. What would mean to remove the link to A but not the link to B in the example above? Be carefull when you use them.

Once agents are declared, one may add to the KF the rules that describe their dynamics.

There are 2 ways of speciﬁng rules:

- by giving two kappa_expressions. The ﬁrst one, called left hand side (LHS), represents what you need to apply the rule. The second, the right hand side (RHS), describes what you obtain once the rule is applied. In Kappa, the 2 are separeted by a $\to $ following the chemical intuition this notation comes from.
- by giving one kappa_expression with edition. The kappa expression still represents the necessary context for the rule to apply but modiﬁcations are speciﬁed locally inside the expression.

Both are allowed in kappa and are described in the 2 next subsections.

In any case, rule speciﬁcation is optionnaly preﬁxed by a rule name (written between ') and always followed by a rule rate. Rate expressions (which include algebraic expressions) are given by the grammars Table 3.5 and Table 3.6 (respectively) but can be thought of for now as positive real numbers.

A complete rule in the ﬁrst representation looks like:

- 'rule name' kappa_expression $\to $ kappa_expression @ rate

One may also declare a bi-directional rule using the convention:

- 'bi-rule' kappa_expression $\leftrightarrow $ kappa_expression @ rate${}^{+}$,rate${}^{-}$

The above declaration is equivalent to writing, in addition of 'my-rule', another rule named 'my rule_op' which swaps left and right hand sides, and has rate rate${}^{-}$.

It is possible to mix agents and tokens in hybrid rules (which may also be bi-directional). A hybrid rule has the following form:

- kappa_expression | token_expression $\to $ kappa_expression | token_expression @ rate

Token expressions are also given by the grammar in Table 3.3.

token_expression | ::= | algebraic_expression:token_name |

| token_expression + token_expression | ||

token_name | ::= | Id |

This is the more intuitive representation. Never the less, as the second paragraph will explain, it is error prone. It also induce duplication of the unmodiﬁed context between LHS and RHS which can lead to even more errors when edition a posteriori on the left are not correctly reported on the right.

With the signature of A deﬁned in the previous section, the line

declares a dimerization rule between two instances of agent A provided the second is phosphorylated (say that is here the meaning of p) on site y).

Remember that the identiﬁer !1 of the bound is arbitrary and that following (DCDW), the site z of A is not mentioned in the expression because it has no inﬂuence on the triggering of this rule.

In the right hand side of a rule, the k-th agent is supposed to correspond to the (transformed) k-th agent of the left hand side. If you put more agent on the left, supernumerary agents are deleted. If you put more on the right, agents are created.

Sticking with A’s signature, one can express that an unphosphoralated A can collapse if not linked to anyone (regardless of the state of z) by writing

Similarly, the rule

indicates that an agent A free on site z, no matter what its internal state is, may beget a new copy of A bound to it via site x.

Note that in the RHS, the interface of the new copy is not completely described. Following the DCDW convention, KaSim will then assume that the sites that are not mentioned are created in the default state, ie they appear free of any bond and their internal state (if any) is the ﬁrst of the list shown in the signature (here state u for y and 0 for z).

Determining which agents are kept (potentially transformed), which are deleted, which are created is in fact a bit tricky. KaSim respects the longest preﬁx convention to determine which agent in the RHS stems from an agent in the LHS. In a word, from a rule of the form ${a}_{1},\dots ,{a}_{n}\to {b}_{1},\dots ,{b}_{k}$, with ${a}_{i}$s and ${b}_{j}$s being agents, one computes the largest $i\le n,k$ such that the agents ${a}_{1},\dots ,{a}_{i}$ are pairwise consistent with ${b}_{1},\dots ,{b}_{i}$, ie the ${a}_{j}$s and ${b}_{j}$s have the same name and the same sites. In which case we say that for all $j\le i$, ${a}_{j}$ is preserved by the transition and for all $j>i$, ${a}_{j}$ is deleted by the transition and ${b}_{j}$ is created by the transition.

This convention makes

and

extremely diﬀerent.

The ﬁrst one removes the A agent in the mixture that will match the second occurrence of A in the rule (the one that used to be linked on z) and it leaves the other sites than x of the ﬁrst A untouched. The second one will delete both As and create a fresh new A with all its site free. Side-eﬀects (explained right below) are dramatically diﬀerent.

It may happen that the application of a rule has some side eﬀects on agents that are not mentioned explicitly in the rule. Consider for instance the previous rule:

The A in the graph that is matched to the second occurrence of A in the LHS will be deleted by the rule. As a consequence all its sites will disappear together with the bonds that were pointing to them. For instance, when applied to the graph

- $G=$A(x!1,y~p,z~2),A(x!2,y~u,z~0!1),C(t!2)

the above rule will result in a new graph ${G}^{\prime}=\mathtt{\text{A(x!1,y~p,z~2),C(t)}}$ where the site t of C is now free as side eﬀect.

Wildcard symbols for link state ? (for bound or not), !_ (for bound to someone), may also induce side eﬀects when they are not preserved in the RHS of a rule, as in

or

Both these rule will cause KaSim to raise a warning at rule compilation time.

Near any modiﬁed element, modiﬁcation is speciﬁed. Created agents are preﬁxed by a $+$. Degraded agents are preﬁxed by a $-$. Site modiﬁcation are described by writing the new (linking or internal) state after a $\u2215$. Therefore, $\u2215$ alone means that the site becomes free, $\u2215!9$ means that the site becomes part of link $9$ and $\u2215\u02dczzz$ means that the new internal state of the site is $zzz$.

Here are all the rules mentionned above (+1 extra) translated in this unambiguous notation:

1’A␣dimerization’ A(x/!1),A(y~p/!1) @ ’gamma’

2’destroy␣A’ -A(x,y~u,z) @ ’gamma’

3’building␣A’ A(z/!1), +A(x!1) @ ’gamma’

4’deleting␣A’ A(x!1/), -A(z!1) @ ’gamma’

5’weird’ -A(z!1), -A(x!1), +A(x) @ ’gamma’

6’Disconnect␣A’ A(x!_/) @ ’gamma’

7’Force␣bind␣A’ A(x?/!1), C(t/!1) @ ’gamma’

8’phos␣C’ C(x1~u/~p!1/),A(c!1/) @ ’modrate’

2’destroy␣A’ -A(x,y~u,z) @ ’gamma’

3’building␣A’ A(z/!1), +A(x!1) @ ’gamma’

4’deleting␣A’ A(x!1/), -A(z!1) @ ’gamma’

5’weird’ -A(z!1), -A(x!1), +A(x) @ ’gamma’

6’Disconnect␣A’ A(x!_/) @ ’gamma’

7’Force␣bind␣A’ A(x?/!1), C(t/!1) @ ’gamma’

8’phos␣C’ C(x1~u/~p!1/),A(c!1/) @ ’modrate’

Using Kappa hybrid rules, one may declare that an action has eﬀects on the concentration of some particles of the system. For instance a rule may consume atp, calcium ions etc. It would be a waste of memory and time to use discrete agents to represent such particles. Instead one may declare tokens using declarations of the form:

One may then use these tokens in conjunction with a classical rule using the hybrid format:

When applied, the above rule will consume 0.2 atp token and produce 0.1 adp token. Note that as speciﬁed by the grammar given Table 3.3, the number of consumed (and produced) tokens can be given by a sum of the form:

- lhs | a${}_{1}$:t${}_{1}$ + ... + a${}_{n}$:t${}_{n}$ $\to $ rhs | a${}_{1}^{\prime}$:t${}_{1}^{\prime}$ + ... + a${}_{k}^{\prime}$:t${}_{k}^{\prime}$ @ r

where each ${a}_{i},{a}_{i}^{\prime}$ is an arbitrary algebraic expression (see Table 3.6) and each ${t}_{i},{t}_{i}^{\prime}$ is a declared token. In the above hybrid rule, calling ${n}_{i},{n}_{i}^{\prime}$ the evaluation of ${a}_{i}$ and ${a}_{i}^{\prime}$, the concentration of token ${t}_{i}$ will decrease from ${n}_{i}$ and the concentration of token ${t}_{i}^{\prime}$ will increase from ${n}_{i}^{\prime}$. Importantly, the activity of a hybrid rule like the above one is still deﬁned by $\mathtt{\text{|lhs|*r}}$, where $\mathtt{\text{|lhs|}}$ is the number of embeddings of the lhs of the rule in the mixture, and does not take into account the concentration of the tokens it mentions. As we will see in the next section, it is however possible to make its rate explicitly depend on the concentrations of the tokens using a variable rate.

Consuming $t$ tokens is strickly equivalent to produicing $-k$ tokens. So, all variation in amount of tokens can be written on the right hand side of rules. This is what you do when you use tokens in edit notation:

Also, speaking only about variation makes clear that the simulator does not check that the consumed amount of token is available. It consumes it even if the quantity becomes then negative!

As said earlier, Kappa rules are equipped with one or two kinetic rate(s). A rate is a real number, or an algebraic expression evaluated as such, called the individual-based or stochastic rate constant, it is the rate at which the corresponding rule is applied per instance of the rule. Its dimension is the inverse of a time $\left[{T}^{-1}\right]$.

The stochastic rate is related to the concentration-based rate constant $k$ of the rule of interest by the following relation:

$$k=\gamma {\left(\mathcal{\mathcal{A}}\phantom{\rule{3.0235pt}{0ex}}V\right)}^{\left(a-1\right)}$$ | (3.1) |

where $V$ is the volume where the model is considered, $\mathcal{\mathcal{A}}=6.022\cdot 1{0}^{23}$ is Avogadro’ s number, $a\ge 0$ is the arity of the rule (ie 2 for a bimolecular rule).

In a modeling context, the constant $k$ is typically expressed using molars $M:=moles\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}{l}^{-1}$ (or variants thereof such as $\mu M$, $nM$), and seconds or minutes. If we choose molars and seconds, $k$’ s unit is ${M}^{1-a}{s}^{-1}$, as follows from the relation above.

Concentration-based rates are usually favored for measurements and/or deterministic models, so it is useful to know how to convert them into individual-based ones used by KaSim. Here are typical volumes used in modeling:

- Mammalian cell: $V=2.25\phantom{\rule{3.0235pt}{0ex}}1{0}^{-12}l$
($1l=1{0}^{-3}{m}^{3}$),
and $\mathcal{\mathcal{A}}V=1.35\phantom{\rule{3.0235pt}{0ex}}1{0}^{12}$.
A concentration of $1M$ in a mammalian cell volume corresponds to $1.35\phantom{\rule{3.0235pt}{0ex}}1{0}^{12}$ molecules; $1nM\approx 1350$ molecules per cell.

- Yeast cell (haploid): $V=4\phantom{\rule{3.0235pt}{0ex}}1{0}^{-14}l$,
and $\mathcal{\mathcal{A}}V=2.4\phantom{\rule{3.0235pt}{0ex}}1{0}^{10}$.
A concentration of $1M$ in a yeast cell volume corresponds to $2.4\phantom{\rule{3.0235pt}{0ex}}1{0}^{10}$ molecules; $1nM\approx 24$ molecules per cell. The volume is doubled in a diploid cell.

- E. Coli cell: $V=1{0}^{-15}l$,
and $\mathcal{\mathcal{A}}V=1{0}^{8}$.
A concentration of $1M$ in a yeast cell volume corresponds to $1{0}^{8}$ molecules; $10nM\approx 1$ molecule per cell.

The table below lists typical ranges for deterministic rate constants and their stochastic counterparts assuming a mammalian cell volume.

process | $k$ | $\gamma $ |

general binding | $1{0}^{7}-1{0}^{9}$ | $1{0}^{-5}-1{0}^{-3}$ |

general unbinding | $1{0}^{-3}-1{0}^{-1}$ | $1{0}^{-3}-1{0}^{-1}$ |

dephosphorylation | 1 | 1 |

phosphorylation | 0.1 | 0.1 |

receptor dimerization | $2\phantom{\rule{3.0235pt}{0ex}}1{0}^{6}$ | $1.6\phantom{\rule{3.0235pt}{0ex}}1{0}^{-6}$ |

receptor dissociation | $1.6\phantom{\rule{3.0235pt}{0ex}}1{0}^{-1}$ | $1.6\phantom{\rule{3.0235pt}{0ex}}1{0}^{-1}$ |

It is considered malpractice to use a Kappa rule of the form A(x),B(y)$\to \dots \phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}$ @ $\gamma $ in a model where this rule could be applied in a context where A and B are sometimes already connected and sometimes disconnected. Indeed, this would lead to an inconsistency in the deﬁnition of the kinetic rate $\gamma $ which should have a volume dependency in the former case and no volume dependency in the latter (see Section 3.4.4).

This sort of ambiguity should be resolved, if possible, by reﬁning the ambiguous rule into cases that are either exclusively unary or binary. Each reﬁnement having a kinetic rate that is consistent with its molecularity. Note that in practice, for models with a large number of agents, it is suﬃcient to assume that the rule A(x),B(y)$\to \dots \phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}$ @ $\gamma $ will have only binary instances. In this case it suﬃces to consider the approximate model:

1’assumed␣binary␣AB’ A(x),B(y) -> ... @ ’ga_2’

2’unary␣AB’ A(x,c!1),C(a!1,b!2),B(y,c!2) -> ... @ ’k_1’

2’unary␣AB’ A(x,c!1),C(a!1,b!2),B(y,c!2) -> ... @ ’k_1’

There are however systems where even enumerating unary cases becomes impossible or the approximation on binary instances is wrong. As an alternative, one should use the kappa notation for ambiguous rules:

- 'my rule' kappa_expression $\to $ kappa_expression @${\gamma}_{2}\left\{{k}_{1}\right\}$

which will tell KaSim to apply the above rule with a rate
${\gamma}_{2}$ for binary instances
and a rate ${k}_{1}$
for unary instances. The obtained model will behave exactly as a model in which the ambiguous
rule has been replaced by unambiguous reﬁnements. However the usage of such rule slowdowns
simulation in a signiﬁcant manner depending on various parameters (such as the presence of large
polymers in the model). We give below an example of a model utilizing binary/unary rates for
rules^{1} .

1%agent: A(b,c)

2%agent: B(a,c)

3%agent: C(b,a)

4##

5%var: ’V’ 1

6%var: ’k1’ INF

7%var: ’k2’ 1.0E-4/’V’

8%var: ’k_off’ 0.1

9##

10’a.b’ A(b),B(a) -> A(b!1),B(a!1) @ ’k2’{’k1’}

11’a.c’ A(c),C(a) -> A(c!1),C(a!1) @ ’k2’{’k1’}

12’b.c’ B(c),C(b) -> B(c!1),C(b!1) @ ’k2’{’k1’}

13##

14’a..b’ A(b!a.B) -> A(b) @ ’k_off’

15’a..c’ A(c!a.C) -> A(c) @ ’k_off’

16’b..c’ B(c!b.C) -> B(c) @ ’k_off’

17##

18%var: ’n’ 1000

19##

20%init: ’n’ A(),B(),C()

21%mod: [E] = 10000 do $STOP "snap.dot"

Notice at lines 10-12 the use of binary/unary notation for rules. As a result binding between freely ﬂoating agents will occur at rate 'k2' while binding between agents that are part of the same complex will occur at rate 'k1'. Line 21 contains a perturbation that requires KaSim to stop the simulation after 10,000 events and output the list of molecular species present in the ﬁnal mixture as a dot ﬁle (see Section 6.1) and that we give Figure 3.1.

For rules with unary rates, one can also specify an horizon. For example in the rule

the unary rate is applied only when the agents $A$ and $B$ are at an horizon $5$ (or closer), of each other. Horizon is an algebraic expression but during simulation, it is always truncated to a positive integer. This feature can change in the future.

rate_expression | ::= | algebraic_expression |

| algebraic_expression {algebraic_expression:algebraic_expression} |

In the KF it is also possible to declare variables with the declaration:

- %var: 'var_name' (algebraic_expression)

where var_name can be any string and algebraic_expression are deﬁned Table 3.6 (available symbols for variable, constants and operators are given Table 3.7).

algebraic_expression | ::= | $x\in \mathbb{R}$ $\mid $ variable |

$\mid $ algebraic_expression binary_op algebraic_expression | ||

$\mid $ unary_op (algebraic_expression) | ||

$\mid $ boolean_expression [?] algebraic_expression [:] algebraic_expression | ||

deﬁne 2 variables, the ﬁrst one tracking the number of embeddings of A(x!1),A(x!1) in the graph over time, while the second divides this value by 2: the number of automorphisms in A(x!1),A(x!1). Note that variables that are used in the expression of another variable must be declared beforehand.

It is also possible to use algebraic expressions as kinetic rates as in

KaSim may output values of variables in the data ﬁle (see option -p in Chapter 4) using plot do:

One may use the shortcut:

- %obs: 'var_name' algebraic_expression

to declare a variable and at the same time require it to be outputted in the data ﬁle.

The initial mixture to which rules in the KF will be applied are declared as

- %init: algebraic_expression kappa_expression

or

- %init: token_name <- algebraic_expression

where algebraic_expression is evaluated before initialization of the simulation (hence all token and kappa expression values in the expression are evaluated to 0). This will add to the initial state of the model mult copies of the graph described by the kappa expression. Again the DCDW convention allows us not to write the complete interface of added agents (the remaining sites will be completed according to the agent’s signature). For instance:

will add 1000 instances of A in its default state A(x,y~u,z~0), 1000 instances of A in state A(x,y~p,z~0) and a concentration of 0.39 mM of calcium ions. Recall that the concentration of calcium can be observed during simulation using |ca2+|. As any other declaration, %init can be used multiple times, and agents will add up to the initial state.

The command line

From a terminal window, KaSim can be invoked by typing

- KaSim file_1 ... file_n [option]

where file_i are the input Kappa ﬁles containing the rules, initial conditions and observables (see Chapter 3). A simulation can generate several ﬁles that are described below. You should really take advantage of the option -d so that they all ends in a distinct directory.

In any case, a log called inputs.ka is generated. This is a valid kappa ﬁles such that KaSim inputs.ka reruns exactly the simulation just ran outputing the exact same outputs (using the same pseudo random numbers!). First line of this ﬁle contains an uuid that is also present in any ﬁle output during the same run.

Tables 4.1 and 4.2 summarize all the options that can be given to the simulator.

Basically, one can specify an upper bound and a plot period either in simulated or bio-time (arbitrary time unit), or in number of events. Note that bio-time is computed using Gillespie's formula for time advance (see Fig. 1.1) and should not be confused with CPU-time (it's not even proportional).

Table 4.1 summarizes the main options that are accessible through the command line. Options that expects an argument are preceded by a single dash, options that do not need any argument start with a double dash.

Two key options are the plot period -p (how often you want a line in the data ﬁle) and the limit -l of simulation. These quantities can expressed in simulated time (the default) or in number of event (using -u event).

Argument | Description |

-u $unit$ | unit of options (time/event) |

-l $max$ | Terminates simulation after $max\ge 0$ $unit$ |

-initial $min$ | starts the simulation at $min$ $unit$ (data outputs convienience only) |

-p $x$ | plot a line in the data ﬁle every $x$ $unit$ |

-o ﬁle | Set the name of data ﬁle to ﬁle |

Use the extension to determine format (’.tsv’, ’.svg’ or csv else) | |

-i ﬁle | Interpret ﬁle as an input ﬁlename |

(for compatibility with KaSim<= 3 and ﬁlenames starting by -) | |

-d dir | Output any produced ﬁle to the directory dir |

Table 4.2 summarizes the advanced options that are accessible through the command line.

Argument | Description |

-seed $n$ | Seeds the pseudo-random number generator $n>0$ |

-rescale $r$ | Multiply each initial quantity by $r$ |

-make-sim sim_ﬁle | makes a simulation package out of the input kappa ﬁles |

-load-sim sim_ﬁle | use simulation package sim_ﬁle as input |

--gluttony | simulation mode that is memory intensive |

but that speeds up simulation time | |

-mode batch | Set non interactive mode (never halt waiting for an user |

action but assume default (data loosing) answer) | |

-mode interactive | Launch the toplevel just after model initialisation |

The command

- KaSim model.ka -u event -l 1000000 -p 1000 -o model.out

will generate a ﬁle model.out containing the trajectories of the observables deﬁned in the kappa ﬁle model.ka. A measure will be taken every 1000 events in ﬁle model.out. The command

- KaSim init.ka rules.ka obs.ka mod.ka -l 1.5 -p 0.0015

will generate a ﬁle data.csv (default name) containing 1000 data points of a simulation of 1.5 (arbitrary) time units of the model. Note that the input Kappa ﬁle is split in four ﬁles containing, for instance, the initial conditions, init.ka, the rule set, rules.ka, the observables, obs.ka, and the perturbations, pert.ka (see Chapter 3 for details).

Simulations are interuptible by sending a SIGINT to the simulator. (Easiest way to send a SIGINT to a process is to press Ctrl-c in the terminal window it runs into.)

In batch mode, this stops the simulation. In other circonstances, it launches a toplevel in which you can either type

- $RUN (optionnaly followed by a pause condition) to resume simulation or
- any of the eﬀect described in 6.1 to trigger it immediatly.

A pause condition is a boolean expression (also described in 6.1) under which the simulator will stop and fall back in the toplevel in order to allow a new interactive session.

The option -mode interactive “interrupts automaticaly the simulation” (and launches the toplevel) just after the initialization of the simulation.

A simple model

We describe below the content of a simple Kappa model and give examples of some typical
run^{1} .

1#### Signatures

2%agent: A(x,c) # Declaration of agent A

3%agent: B(x) # Declaration of B

4%agent: C(x1~u~p,x2~u~p) # Declaration of C with 2 modifiable sites

5#### Rules

6’a.b’ A(x),B(x) -> A(x!1),B(x!1) @ ’on_rate’ #A binds B

7’a..b’ A(x!1),B(x!1) -> A(x),B(x) @ ’off_rate’ #AB dissociation

8’ab.c’ A(x!_,c),C(x1~u) -> A(x!_,c!2),C(x1~u!2) @ ’on_rate’ #AB binds C

9’mod␣x1’ C(x1~u!1),A(c!1) -> C(x1~p),A(c) @ ’mod_rate’ #ABC modifies x1

10’a.c’ A(x,c),C(x1~p,x2~u) -> A(x,c!1),C(x1~p,x2~u!1) @ ’on_rate’ #A binds C on x2

11’mod␣x2’ A(x,c!1),C(x1~p,x2~u!1) -> A(x,c),C(x1~p,x2~p) @ mod_rate #A modifies x2

12#### Variables

13%var: ’on_rate’ 1.0E-4 # per molecule per second

14%var: ’off_rate’ 0.1 # per second

15%var: ’mod_rate’ 1 # per second

16%obs: ’AB’ |A(x!x.B)|

17%obs: ’Cuu’ |C(x1~u,x2~u)|

18%obs: ’Cpu’ |C(x1~p,x2~u)|

19%obs: ’Cpp’ |C(x1~p,x2~p)|

20#### Initial conditions

21%init: 1000 A(),B()

22%init: 10000 C()

2%agent: A(x,c) # Declaration of agent A

3%agent: B(x) # Declaration of B

4%agent: C(x1~u~p,x2~u~p) # Declaration of C with 2 modifiable sites

5#### Rules

6’a.b’ A(x),B(x) -> A(x!1),B(x!1) @ ’on_rate’ #A binds B

7’a..b’ A(x!1),B(x!1) -> A(x),B(x) @ ’off_rate’ #AB dissociation

8’ab.c’ A(x!_,c),C(x1~u) -> A(x!_,c!2),C(x1~u!2) @ ’on_rate’ #AB binds C

9’mod␣x1’ C(x1~u!1),A(c!1) -> C(x1~p),A(c) @ ’mod_rate’ #ABC modifies x1

10’a.c’ A(x,c),C(x1~p,x2~u) -> A(x,c!1),C(x1~p,x2~u!1) @ ’on_rate’ #A binds C on x2

11’mod␣x2’ A(x,c!1),C(x1~p,x2~u!1) -> A(x,c),C(x1~p,x2~p) @ mod_rate #A modifies x2

12#### Variables

13%var: ’on_rate’ 1.0E-4 # per molecule per second

14%var: ’off_rate’ 0.1 # per second

15%var: ’mod_rate’ 1 # per second

16%obs: ’AB’ |A(x!x.B)|

17%obs: ’Cuu’ |C(x1~u,x2~u)|

18%obs: ’Cpu’ |C(x1~p,x2~u)|

19%obs: ’Cpp’ |C(x1~p,x2~p)|

20#### Initial conditions

21%init: 1000 A(),B()

22%init: 10000 C()

Line 1-4 of this KF contains signature declarations. Agents of type C have 2 sites x1 and x2 whose internal state may be u(nphosphorylated) or p(hosphorylated). Recall that the default state of these sites is u (the ﬁrst one). Line 8, rule 'ab.c' binds an A connected to someone on site x (link type !_) to a C. Note that the only rule that binds an agent to x of A is 'a.b' at line 6. Hence the use of !_ is a commodity and the rule could be replaced by

There are two main points to notice about this model: A can modify both sites of C once it is bound to them. However, only an A bound to a B can connect on x1 and only a free A can connect on x2. Note also that x2 is available for connection only when x1 is already modiﬁed.

We try ﬁrst a coarse simulation of $100,000$ events (10 times the number of agents in the initial system).

- KaSim ABC.ka -u event -l 100000 -p 1000 -o abc.csv

Plotting the content of the abc.csv ﬁle one notices that nothing of signiﬁcant interest happen to the observables after 250s. So we can now specify a meaningful time limit by running

- KaSim ABC.ka -l 250 -p 0.25 -o abc.out

which produces the data points whose rendering is given in Fig. 5.1.

We will use this model as a running example for the next chapter, in order to illustrate various advanced concepts.

Advanced concepts

It is possible to trigger a perturbation of the simulation when a precondition (depending on the variables of the model) is satisﬁed.

By default, a perturbation is applied as soon as its precondition is satisﬁed and then discarded. Such perturbation is called "one shot". It is however possible to re-apply the same perturbation each time its precondition is satisﬁed and until a certain condition is met, using the repeat ... until constructors.

When the precondition of several perturbations are satisﬁed at the same time. Perturbations are triggered in the order in which they have been declared in the KF. A perturbation can only be ﬁred once per event loop.

Basic perturbations are obtained using the declaration :

- %mod: boolean_expression do eﬀect_list

and may be applied repeatedly using:

- %mod: repeat boolean_expression do eﬀect_list until boolean_expression

where boolean_expression and eﬀect_list are deﬁned by the grammar given Table 6.1 (the operator rel can be any usual binary relation in $\left\{<,=,>\right\}$ and algebraic expressions are deﬁned Table 3.6).

A example of boolean expression used as a precondition is

It indicate the wish to trigger a perturbation whenever the simulation time has passed 10 time units and the ratio of variables v1 over v2 is above 1. Recall that the perturbations are "one shot" interventions on the simulation. Possible interventions are described in the following sections using examples.

Note on time dependent preconditions:

Consider a perturbation of the form:

- %mod: f(t)=x do $\dots \phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}$

where $f\left(t\right)$ is an algebraic expression dependent on time and $x$ an arbitrary algebraic expression. Having in mind the simulation algorithm implemented by KaSim, at the beginning of an event loop, both $f\left(t\right)$ and $x$ will be evaluated. It is very unlikely (in general with a probability equal to 0) that both values coincide. Currently KaSim is not equipped with a solver able to detect that in the past of the current state, there was a $t$ that made the precondition hold, unless the equation is trivial to solve. Therefore the only time dependent precondition with an equality test that is allowed in KaSim has to be of the form $\left[T\right]=n$ with $n\in \mathbb{N}$. For instance: %mod: [T]=10 do $STOP will interrupt the simulation after exactly 10 time units.

Continuing with the ABC model, the perturbation eﬀect: $ADD n C(x1~p) will add $n\ge 0$ instances of C with x1 already in state p (and the rest of its interface in the default state as speciﬁed line 4 of ABC.ka). Also the perturbation eﬀect: $DEL inf B(x!_) will remove all Bs connected to some agent from the mixture.

There are various ways one can use perturbations to study more deeply a given kappa model. A basic illustration is the use of a simple perturbation to let a system equilibrate before starting a real simulation. For instance, as can be seen from the curve given in Fig. 5.1, the number of AB complexes is arbitrarily set to 0 in the initial state (all As are disconnected from Bs in the initial mixture). In order to avoid this, one can modify the kappa ﬁle the following way: we set the initial concentration of C to 0 by deleting line 22. Now we introduce Cs after 25 t.u using the perturbation: %mod: [T]=25 do $ADD 10000 C()

The modiﬁed kappa ﬁle is available in the source repository, in the model/ directory (ﬁle abc-pert.ka). Running again a simulation (a bit longer) by entering in the command line:

- KaSim ABC-pert.ka -l 300 -p 0.3 -o abc2.out

one obtains the curve given in Fig. 6.1.

A snapshot is an instant photography of the current state of the mixture (a dump of the state at a given moment in the simulation).

In the previous example, we let the system evolve for some time without its main reactant C in order to let other reactants go to a less arbitrary initial state. One may object that this way of proceeding is CPU-time consuming if one has to do this at each simulation. An alternative is to use the $SNAPSHOT primitive that allows a user to export a snapshot of the mixture at a given time point as a new (piece of) kappa ﬁle. For instance, the declaration: %mod: [E-]/([E]+[E-])>0.9 do $SNAPSHOT "prefix" will ask KaSim to export the mixture the ﬁrst time the percentage of null events reaches 90%. The exported ﬁle will be named prefix_$n$.ka where $n$ is the event number at which the snapshot was taken. One may also use a string_expression to construct any preﬁx using local variables.

One may omit to deﬁne a preﬁx and simply type: %mod: [E-]/([E]+[E-])>0.9 do $SNAPSHOT in which case the default preﬁx snap.ka will be used for naming snapshots.

If the name already exists a counter will be appended at the end of the ﬁle to prevent overwriting. Snapshots can be performed multiple times, for instance every 1000 events, using the declaration:

which results in KaSim producing a snapshot every 1000 (productive) events until the simulation ends.

Note that instead of producing kappa ﬁles, one may use snapshot perturbations to produce an image of the mixture in the dot/html format using the parameter by specifying the extention in the name skeleton (%mod: [E-]/([E]+[E-])>0.9 do $SNAPSHOT "snap.dot").

The perturbation $STOP "final_state.ka" will terminate the simulation whenever its precondition is satisﬁed and produce a snapshot of the last mixture.

The concentration of any token can be reset on the ﬂy using a perturbation. For instance the declaration: %mod: repeat (|a|<100 do a <- |a|*2)until [false] will double the concentration of token a each time it gets below 100.

In our ABC example, adding the instruction: %mod: [true] do $TRACK ’Cpp’[true] will ask KaSim to turn on causality analysis for the observable 'Cpp' since the beginning of the simulation, and display the causal explanation of every new occurrence of 'Cpp', until the end of the simulation. The explanation, that we call a causal ﬂow, is a set of rule application ordered by causality and displayed as a graph using dot format. In this graph, an edge r$\to $ r' between two rule applications $\mathtt{\text{r}}$ and $\mathtt{\text{'r'}}$ indicates that the ﬁrst rule application has used, in the simulation, some sites that were modiﬁed by the application of the former. We show Fig. 6.2 an example of such causal ﬂow.

Causality analysis of the observable Cpp can be turned oﬀ at any time using a declaration of the form: %mod: [T]>25 do $TRACK ’Cpp’[false]

Each time KaSim detects a new occurrence of the observable that is being tracked, it will dump it’s causal past as a graph using the dot format (see Fig. 6.2 above). The name of the ﬁle in which the causal ﬂow is stored can be set using the %def instruction (see Section 6.4).

In general pure causal ﬂows will contain a lot of information that modelers may not wish to consider. Indeed in classical ﬂows, causality (represented by an edge between to rule applications in the graph) is purely local. Therefore a sequence $a\to b\to c$ only implies that an instance of rule $a$ caused an instance of rule $b$ which in turn created an instance of the observable $c$. However it does not imply that $a$ was "necessary" for $c$ to occur (for instance $c$ might have been possible before $a$ but not after, and $b$ would be simply re-enabling $c$). It is possible to tell KaSim to retain only events that are more strongly related to the observable using two compression techniques (see Ref. [3] for formal details). Intuitively, in a weakly compressed causal ﬂow one has the additional property that if an event $e$ is a (possibly indirect) cause of the observable, then preventing $e$ from occurring would have prevented the rest of the causal ﬂow to occur (ie it is not possible to reconstruct a computation trace containing the observable with the events that remain in the causal ﬂow). A strongly compressed causal ﬂow enjoys the same property with an additional level of compression obtained by considering diﬀerent instances of the same rule to be indistinguishable. Note that causal ﬂow compressions may be memory and computation demanding. For large systems it may be safer to start with weak compressions only.

The type of compression can be set using the %def instruction (see Section 6.4). For instance: %def: "displayCompression" "none" "weak" "strong" will ask KaSim to output 3 versions of each computed causal ﬂow, with all possible degrees of compressions. Each causal ﬂow is outputted into a ﬁle [filename][Type]_$n$.dot where filename is the default name for causal ﬂows which can be redeﬁned using the parameter cflowFileName, Type is the type of compression (either nothing or Strongly, or Weakly) and $n$ is the identiﬁer of the causal ﬂow. For each compression type a summary ﬁle, named [filename][Type]Summary.dat, is also produced. It allows to map each compressed causal ﬂow to the identiﬁer of its uncompressed version (row #id), together with the production time $T$ and event number $E$ at which the observable was produced. It also contains information about the size of the causal ﬂow.

The ﬂux map is a powerful observation that tracks, on the ﬂy, the inﬂuence that rule applications have on each others. It is dynamically generated and tracks eﬀective impacts (positive or negative) a every rule application. The ﬂux map can be computed using declarations of the form:

The resulting ﬂux map is a graph where a positive edge between rules $r$ and $s$ (in green) indicates an overall positive contribution of $r$ over $s$. Said otherwise, the sum of $r$ applications increased the activity of $s$. Conversely, a negative edge (in red) will indicate that $r$ had an overall negative impact on the activity of $s$. Note that the importance of the ﬂux between two rules can be observed by looking at the label on the edges that indicate the overall activity transfer (positive or negative) between the rules. The above declaration produce a ﬂux map that is shown Fig. 6.3. Note that ﬂux may vary during time, therefore the time or event limit of the simulation is of importance and will likely change the aspect of the produced map.

Any variable between simple quotes can be updated during a simulation using a declaration of the form: %mod: ’Cpp’> 500 do $UPDATE ’k_on’0.0

This perturbation will be applied whenever the observable 'Cpp' will become greater than 500. Its eﬀect will be to set the on rate of all binding rules to 0. Note that according to the grammar given Table 6.1, one may use any algebraic expression as the new value of the variable. For instance: %mod: ’Cpp’> 500 do $UPDATE ’k_on’’k_on’/100 will cause the on rate of all rules to decrease a hunderd fold. Note that it is possible to override the kinetic rate of a speciﬁc rule: in our ABC example, the declaration: %mod: ’Cpp’> 500 do $UPDATE ’a.b’inf will set the kinetic rate of rule 'a.b' to inﬁnity.

As an example, consider the computation of causal ﬂows between $t=10$ and $t=20$ using the declarations:

The above declaration will ask KaSim to analyze each new occurrence of 'Cpp' in that time interval. If $n$ new instances took place, then KaSim will have to compute $n$ causal ﬂows. One may want to bound the number of computed ﬂows to a certain value, say 10. One may do so using the combination of perturbations and variables given below:

1%var: ’x’ 0

2%mod: [T]>10 do ($TRACK ’Cpp’ [true] ; $UPDATE ’x’ ’Cpp’)

3%mod: [T]>20 || (’x’ > 0 && ’Cpp’ - ’x’ > 9) do $TRACK ’Cpp’ [false]

2%mod: [T]>10 do ($TRACK ’Cpp’ [true] ; $UPDATE ’x’ ’Cpp’)

3%mod: [T]>20 || (’x’ > 0 && ’Cpp’ - ’x’ > 9) do $TRACK ’Cpp’ [false]

The ﬁrst line is a declaration of an $x$ variable that is initially set to 0. Note that the second line is a perturbation that contains two simultaneous eﬀects, the ﬁrst one triggering causality analysis and the second one updating the value of variable $x$ to the current value of variable 'Cpp'. The last line stops causality analysis whenever time is greater than 20 or when 10 new observables have been found (the diﬀerence between the current value of 'Cpp' and $x$.

The eﬀect $PRINT string_expression <string_expression> enables one to output values during a computation to

- standard output if the ﬁrst string_expression is empty
- to to the ﬁle speciﬁed by the ﬁrst string_expression else

For instance:

1%mod: repeat \

2|A|<0 do $PRINT "token_".[E].".dat" <"Token A is: " . |A| . " at time=". [T]>\

3until [false]

2|A|<0 do $PRINT "token_".[E].".dat" <"Token A is: " . |A| . " at time=". [T]>\

3until [false]

will ask KaSim to output the value of token A in a ﬁle "token_$n$.dat" which changes at each new productive event, each time its value gets below 0.

The eﬀect $PLOTENTRY outputs a line with the current value of observables in the data ﬁle. For example, %mod: repeat [E] [mod] 10 = 0 do $PLOTENTRY until [false] will store the value of observables every 10 productive events.

KaSim permits users in a hurry to avoid writing agent signatures explicitly using the option --implicit-signature of the command line. The signature is then deduced using information gathered in the KF. Note that it is not recommended to use the DCDW convention for introduced agents in conjunction with the --implicit-signature option unless the default state of all sites is mentioned in the %init declarations or in the rules that create agents.

The simulation algorithm that is implemented in KaSim requires an initialization phase whose complexity is proportional to $R\ast G$ where $R$ is the cardinal of the rule set and $G$ the size of the initial mixture. Thus for large systems, initialization may take a while. Whenever a user wishes to run several simulations of the same kappa model, it is possible to skip this initialization phase by creating a simulation package. For instance:

- KaSim abc.ka -l $n$ -make-sim abc.kasim

will generate a standard simulation of the abc.ka model, but in addition, will create the simulation package abc.kasim (.kasim extension is not mandatory). This package is a binary ﬁle, ie not human readable, that can be used as input of a new simulation using the command:

- KaSim -load-sim abc.kasim -l $k$

Note that this simulation is now run for $k$ time units instead of $n$. Importantly, simulation packages can only be given as input to the same KaSim that produced it. As a consequence, recompiling the code, or obtaining diﬀerent binaries, will cause the simulation package to become useless.

In the KF (usually in a dedicated ﬁle) one may use expressions of the form:

$$\%def:"parameter\_name""parameter\_value"$$

where tunable parameters are described table 6.2 (default values are given ﬁrst in the possible values column).

parameter | possible values | description |

Simulation | ||

"maxConsecutiveClash" | "2" or any integer | number of consecutive clashes |

before giving up | ||

square approximation | ||

"T0" | ﬂoat | simulation starting time |

(outputs convienience only) | ||

"seed" | any positive integer | pseudo-random number |

generator seed | ||

Outputs | ||

"traceFileName" | string | outputs simulation trace |

in the given ﬁle | ||

"outputFileName" | string | data ﬁle name |

"plotPeriod" | number then optionally | interval between |

"events" | plot lines | |

Causality analysis | Deprecated | Please use KaStor |

"displayCompression" | any combination of | type of compression |

"none", "strong", "weak" | ||

"cflowFileName" | "cflow", any string | ﬁle name preﬁx for causal ﬂows |

"dotCflows" | "no", "html" | generate causal ﬂows in html |

"yes", "dot" | generate causal ﬂows in dot | |

"json" | generate causal ﬂows in json | |

Pretty printing | ||

"dumpIfDeadlocked" | "no","yes" | Snapshot when simulation |

is stalled | ||

"colorDot" | "no", "yes" | use colors in dot format ﬁles |

"progressBarSymbol" | "#" or any character | symbol for the progress bar |

"progressBarSize" | "60" or any integer | length of the progress bar |

The KaSa static analyser

From a terminal window, KaSa can be invoked by typing

- KaSa file_1 ... file_n [option]

where file_i are the input Kappa ﬁles containing the rules, initial conditions and observables (see Chapter 3).

All the options are summarised as follows:

General options

--help Verbose help

-h Short help

--version Show version number

--gui GUI to select

--(no-)expert Expert mode (more options)

0_Actions

--do-all

launch everything

--reset-all

launch nothing

--(no-)compute-contact-map (default: enabled)

compute the contact map

--(no-)compute-influence-map (default: enabled)

compute the influence map

--(no-)compute-ODE-flow-of-information (default: disabled)

Compute an approximation of the flow of information in the ODE

semantics

--(no-)compute-stochastic-flow-of-information (default: disabled)

Compute an approximation of the flow of information in the stochastic

semantics

--(no-)compute-reachability-analysis (default: enabled)

Compute an approximation of the states of agent sites

--(no-)views-domain (default: enabled)

enable local views analysis

--(no-)double-bonds-domain (default: enabled)

enable double bonds analysis

--(no-)sites-accross-bonds-domain (default: enabled)

enable the analysis of the relation amond the states of sites in

connected agents

--(no-)compute-local-traces (default: disabled)

Compute the local traces of interesting parts of agent interfaces

1_Output

--output-directory <value>

Default repository for outputs

--output-contact-map-directory <name> (default: output)

put the contact map file in this directory

--output-contact-map <name> (default: contact)

file name for the contact map output

--contact-map-format DOT (default: DOT)

Tune the output format for the contact map

--output-influence-map-directory <name> (default: output)

put the influence map file in this directory

--output-influence-map <name> (default: influence)

file name for the influence map

--influence-map-format DOT | DIM | HTML (default: DOT)

Tune the output format for the influence map

--output-local-traces-directory <name> (default: output)

put the files about local traces in this directory

--local-traces-format DOT | HTML (default: DOT)

Tune the output format for the local transition systems

--output-log-directory <name> (default: output)

put the log files in this directory

2_Reachability_analysis

--(no-)compute-reachability-analysis (default: enabled)

Compute an approximation of the states of agent sites

--enable-every-domain

enable every abstract domain

--disable-every-domain

disable every abstract domain

--contact-map-domain static | dynamic (default: dynamic)

contact map domain is used to over-approximate side-effects

--(no-)views-domain (default: enabled)

enable local views analysis

--(no-)double-bonds-domain (default: enabled)

enable double bonds analysis

--(no-)sites-accross-bonds-domain (default: enabled)

enable the analysis of the relation amond the states of sites in

connected agents

--verbosity-level-for-reachability-analysis Mute | Low | Medium | High |

Full (default: Low)

Tune the verbosity level for the reachability analysis

--output-mode-for-reachability-analysis raw | kappa | english (default: kappa)

post-process relation and output the result in the chosen format

3_Trace_analysis

--(no-)compute-local-traces (default: disabled)

Compute the local traces of interesting parts of agent interfaces

--(no-)show-rule-names-in-local-traces (default: enabled)

Annotate each transition with the name of the rules in trace

abstraction

--(no-)use-macrotransitions-in-local-traces (default: disabled)

Use macrotransitions to get a compact trace up to change of the

interleaving order of commuting microtransitions

--(no-)ignore-trivial-losanges (default: disabled)

Do not use macrotransitions for simplifying trivial losanges

--output-local-traces-directory <name> (default: output)

put the files about local traces in this directory

--local-traces-format DOT | HTML (default: DOT)

Tune the output format for the local transition systems

4_Contact_map

--(no-)compute-contact-map (default: enabled)

compute the contact map

--output-contact-map-directory <name> (default: output)

put the contact map file in this directory

--output-contact-map <name> (default: contact)

file name for the contact map output

--contact-map-format DOT (default: DOT)

Tune the output format for the contact map

--contact-map-accuracy-level Low | High (default: Low)

Tune the accuracy level of the contact map

--(no-)pure-contact (default: disabled)

show in the contact map only the sites with a binding state

5_Influence_map

--(no-)compute-influence-map (default: enabled)

compute the influence map

--influence-map-accuracy-level Low | Medium | High (default: Medium)

Tune the accuracy level of the influence map

--output-influence-map-directory <name> (default: output)

put the influence map file in this directory

--output-influence-map <name> (default: influence)

file name for the influence map

--influence-map-format DOT | DIM | HTML (default: DOT)

Tune the output format for the influence map

6_FLow_of_information

--(no-)compute-ODE-flow-of-information (default: disabled)

Compute an approximation of the flow of information in the ODE

semantics

--(no-)compute-stochastic-flow-of-information (default: disabled)

Compute an approximation of the flow of information in the stochastic

semantics

7_Debugging_info

--output-log-directory <name> (default: output)

put the log files in this directory

--(no-)debugging-mode (default: disabled)

dump debugging information

--(no-)unsafe-mode (default: enabled)

Exceptions are gathered at the end of the computation, instead of

halting it

(57 options)

--help Verbose help

-h Short help

--version Show version number

--gui GUI to select

--(no-)expert Expert mode (more options)

0_Actions

--do-all

launch everything

--reset-all

launch nothing

--(no-)compute-contact-map (default: enabled)

compute the contact map

--(no-)compute-influence-map (default: enabled)

compute the influence map

--(no-)compute-ODE-flow-of-information (default: disabled)

Compute an approximation of the flow of information in the ODE

semantics

--(no-)compute-stochastic-flow-of-information (default: disabled)

Compute an approximation of the flow of information in the stochastic

semantics

--(no-)compute-reachability-analysis (default: enabled)

Compute an approximation of the states of agent sites

--(no-)views-domain (default: enabled)

enable local views analysis

--(no-)double-bonds-domain (default: enabled)

enable double bonds analysis

--(no-)sites-accross-bonds-domain (default: enabled)

enable the analysis of the relation amond the states of sites in

connected agents

--(no-)compute-local-traces (default: disabled)

Compute the local traces of interesting parts of agent interfaces

1_Output

--output-directory <value>

Default repository for outputs

--output-contact-map-directory <name> (default: output)

put the contact map file in this directory

--output-contact-map <name> (default: contact)

file name for the contact map output

--contact-map-format DOT (default: DOT)

Tune the output format for the contact map

--output-influence-map-directory <name> (default: output)

put the influence map file in this directory

--output-influence-map <name> (default: influence)

file name for the influence map

--influence-map-format DOT | DIM | HTML (default: DOT)

Tune the output format for the influence map

--output-local-traces-directory <name> (default: output)

put the files about local traces in this directory

--local-traces-format DOT | HTML (default: DOT)

Tune the output format for the local transition systems

--output-log-directory <name> (default: output)

put the log files in this directory

2_Reachability_analysis

--(no-)compute-reachability-analysis (default: enabled)

Compute an approximation of the states of agent sites

--enable-every-domain

enable every abstract domain

--disable-every-domain

disable every abstract domain

--contact-map-domain static | dynamic (default: dynamic)

contact map domain is used to over-approximate side-effects

--(no-)views-domain (default: enabled)

enable local views analysis

--(no-)double-bonds-domain (default: enabled)

enable double bonds analysis

--(no-)sites-accross-bonds-domain (default: enabled)

enable the analysis of the relation amond the states of sites in

connected agents

--verbosity-level-for-reachability-analysis Mute | Low | Medium | High |

Full (default: Low)

Tune the verbosity level for the reachability analysis

--output-mode-for-reachability-analysis raw | kappa | english (default: kappa)

post-process relation and output the result in the chosen format

3_Trace_analysis

--(no-)compute-local-traces (default: disabled)

Compute the local traces of interesting parts of agent interfaces

--(no-)show-rule-names-in-local-traces (default: enabled)

Annotate each transition with the name of the rules in trace

abstraction

--(no-)use-macrotransitions-in-local-traces (default: disabled)

Use macrotransitions to get a compact trace up to change of the

interleaving order of commuting microtransitions

--(no-)ignore-trivial-losanges (default: disabled)

Do not use macrotransitions for simplifying trivial losanges

--output-local-traces-directory <name> (default: output)

put the files about local traces in this directory

--local-traces-format DOT | HTML (default: DOT)

Tune the output format for the local transition systems

4_Contact_map

--(no-)compute-contact-map (default: enabled)

compute the contact map

--output-contact-map-directory <name> (default: output)

put the contact map file in this directory

--output-contact-map <name> (default: contact)

file name for the contact map output

--contact-map-format DOT (default: DOT)

Tune the output format for the contact map

--contact-map-accuracy-level Low | High (default: Low)

Tune the accuracy level of the contact map

--(no-)pure-contact (default: disabled)

show in the contact map only the sites with a binding state

5_Influence_map

--(no-)compute-influence-map (default: enabled)

compute the influence map

--influence-map-accuracy-level Low | Medium | High (default: Medium)

Tune the accuracy level of the influence map

--output-influence-map-directory <name> (default: output)

put the influence map file in this directory

--output-influence-map <name> (default: influence)

file name for the influence map

--influence-map-format DOT | DIM | HTML (default: DOT)

Tune the output format for the influence map

6_FLow_of_information

--(no-)compute-ODE-flow-of-information (default: disabled)

Compute an approximation of the flow of information in the ODE

semantics

--(no-)compute-stochastic-flow-of-information (default: disabled)

Compute an approximation of the flow of information in the stochastic

semantics

7_Debugging_info

--output-log-directory <name> (default: output)

put the log files in this directory

--(no-)debugging-mode (default: disabled)

dump debugging information

--(no-)unsafe-mode (default: enabled)

Exceptions are gathered at the end of the computation, instead of

halting it

(57 options)

Orders in option matter, since they can be used to toggle on/oﬀ some functionalities or to assign a value to some environment variables. The options are interpreted from left to right.

More options are available in the OCaml ﬁle KaSa_rep/config/config.ml and can be tuned before compilation.

The graphical interface can be launched by typing

- KaSa

without any option.

There are ﬁve diﬀerent areas of importance in the graphical interface:

- On the top left of the window, a button allows for the selection between the Normal and the Expert mode (other modes may be available if activated at compilation). In expert modes, more options are available in the graphical interface.
- On the top center/right, some button allows for the selection of the tab. There are currently six sub-tabs available: 0_Actions, 1_Output, 2_Reachability_analysis, 3_Trace_analysis, 4_Contact_map, 5_Influence_map.
- Center: The options of the selected sub-tab are displayed and can be tuned.
Contextual help is provided when the mouse is hovered over an element.

The interface will store the options that are checked or ﬁlled and the order in which they have been selected. When launched, the analysis interprets these options in the order they have been entered.

Some options appear in several sub-tabs. They denote the same option and share the same value.

- File selector: The ﬁle selector can be used to upload as many kappa ﬁles as desired. The button ’Clear’ can be used to reset the selection of ﬁles.
- Bottom: Some buttons are available. The button ’Quit’ can be used to leave the
interface. The button ’Reset to default’ tune all the options to their default value.
The button ’Import options’ can be used to restore the value of the options as saved
during a previous session of the graphical interfaces. The button ’Save options’ can
be used to save the value of the options for a further session. The button ’Launch
analyze’ launch KaSa with the current options.
Importantly, options are saved automatically under various occasions. Thus, it is possible to restore the value of the options before the last reset, before the last quit, or before the last analysis.

The sub-tab 0_Actions (see Fig. 7.1) contains the main actions which can be performed.

- The button –do-all activates all the functionalities.
- The button –reset-all inactivates all the functionalities.
- The option –compute-contact-map can be used to (des)activate the computation of the contact map.
- The option –compute-influence-map can be used to (des)activate the computation of the inﬂuence map.
- The option –compute-reachability-analysis can be used to (des)activate the computation of the reachability analysis.
- The option –compute-local-traces can be used to (des)activate the computation of the trace analysis.

The sub-tab 1_Ouput (see Fig. 7.2) contains the names of the output ﬁles and their format.

- The ﬁeld –output-directory can be used to set the repository where output ﬁle are written. KaSa will create this repository, if it does not exist.
- The ﬁeld –output-contact-map-directory can be used to set the reporitory where the output ﬁle for the contact map is written, if a contact map is requested. KaSa will create this repository, if it does not exist.
- The ﬁeld –output-contact-map contains the name of the ﬁle for the contact map. If the ﬁle name does not end by it, the proper extension will be added to the ﬁle name.
- The ﬁeld –output-influence-map-directory can be used to set the reporitory where the output ﬁle for the inﬂuence map is written, if an inﬂuence map is requested. KaSa will create this repository, if it does not exist.
- The ﬁeld –output-influence-map contains the name of the ﬁle for the inﬂuence map. If the ﬁle name does not end by it, the proper extension will be added to the ﬁle name.
- The format for the inﬂuence map can be chosen among DOT and HTML thanks to the option –influence-map-format.
- The ﬁeld –output-local-traces-directory can be used to set the reporitory where the output ﬁle for the result of trace analysis is written, if this analysis is requested. KaSa will create this repository, if it does not exist.
- The format for the local traces can be chosen among DOT and HTML thanks to the option –local-traces-format.

When a ﬁle already exists, it is overwritten without any warning.

Reachability analysis aimed at detecting statically properties about the bio-molecular species that can be formed in a model. Knowing whether, or not, a given bio-molecular species, can be formed in a model is an undecidable problem [16]. Thus, our analysis is approximate. Indeed, it computes an over-approximation of the set of the bio-molecular species that can be reached from the initial state of the model, by applying an unbounded number of computation steps. As formalized in [6, 13], the abstraction consists in:

- ﬁrstly, ignoring the number of occurrences of bio-molecular species (we assume that whenever a bio-molecular species can be formed, then it can be formed as many time as it could be necessary),
- secondly, abstracting a bio-molecular species by the set of its properties.

The analysis takes into account also the chemical species that may be introduced in a perturbation.

The classes of properties of interest are encoded in so called abstract domains, which can be independently enabled/disabled. The whole analysis can be understood as a mutual recursion between smaller analyses (one per abstract domain), that communicates information between each other at each step of the analysis. We took the same scheme of collaboration between abstract domains as in [2].

As an example, we consider the following model:

1%agent: E(x)

2%agent: R(x,c,cr,n)

3

4%init: 1 E()

5%init: 1 R()

6

7’E.R’ E(x),R(x) -> E(x!1),R(x!1) @1

8’E/R’ E(x!1),R(x!1,c) -> E(x),R(x,c) @1

9’R.R’ R(x!_,c),R(x!_,c) -> R(x!_,c!1),R(x!_,c!1) @1

10’R/R’ R(c!1,cr,n),R(c!1,cr,n) -> R(c,cr,n),R(c,cr,n) @1

11’R.int’ R(c!1,cr,n),R(c!1,cr,n) -> R(c!1,cr!2,n),R(c!1,cr,n!2) @1

12’R/int’ R(cr!1),R(n!1) -> R(cr),R(n) @1

13’obs’ R(x,c,cr!_,n!_) -> R(x,c,cr,n) @1

2%agent: R(x,c,cr,n)

3

4%init: 1 E()

5%init: 1 R()

6

7’E.R’ E(x),R(x) -> E(x!1),R(x!1) @1

8’E/R’ E(x!1),R(x!1,c) -> E(x),R(x,c) @1

9’R.R’ R(x!_,c),R(x!_,c) -> R(x!_,c!1),R(x!_,c!1) @1

10’R/R’ R(c!1,cr,n),R(c!1,cr,n) -> R(c,cr,n),R(c,cr,n) @1

11’R.int’ R(c!1,cr,n),R(c!1,cr,n) -> R(c!1,cr!2,n),R(c!1,cr,n!2) @1

12’R/int’ R(cr!1),R(n!1) -> R(cr),R(n) @1

13’obs’ R(x,c,cr!_,n!_) -> R(x,c,cr,n) @1

Typing the following instruction:

KaSa reachability.ka --reset-all --compute-reachability-analysis

will perform the reachability analysis on the model reachability.ka.

We obtain the following result:

Kappa Static Analyzer (61977f7) (without Tk interface)

Analysis launched at 2017/02/23 22:55:12 (GMT+0) on

testing-gce-b3e6d58e-efdc-402d-8d20-6c7eaa7dc903

Parsing ../kappa/reachability.ka...

done

Compiling...

Reachability analysis...

------------------------------------------------------------

* There are some non applyable rules

------------------------------------------------------------

rule 6: obs will never be applied.

------------------------------------------------------------

every agent may occur in the model

------------------------------------------------------------

* Non relational properties:

------------------------------------------------------------

E() => [ E(x) v E(x!R.x) ]

R() => [ R(c) v R(c!R.c) ]

R() => [ R(n) v R(n!R.cr) ]

R() => [ R(cr) v R(cr!R.n) ]

R() => [ R(x) v R(x!E.x) ]

------------------------------------------------------------

* Relational properties:

------------------------------------------------------------

R() =>

[

R(c,cr,n,x!E.x)

v R(c!R.c,cr!R.n,n,x!E.x)

v R(c!R.c,cr,n,x!E.x)

v R(c!R.c,cr,n!R.cr,x!E.x)

v R(c,cr,n,x)

]

------------------------------------------------------------

* Properties in connected agents

------------------------------------------------------------

R(c!1),R(c!1) =>

[

R(c!1,cr!R.n),R(c!1,cr)

v R(c!1,cr),R(c!1,cr)

v R(c!1,cr),R(c!1,cr!R.n)

]

R(c!1),R(c!1) =>

[

R(c!1,cr!R.n),R(c!1,n!R.cr)

v R(c!1,cr),R(c!1,n)

]

R(c!1),R(c!1) =>

[

R(c!1,n!R.cr),R(c!1,n)

v R(c!1,n),R(c!1,n)

v R(c!1,n),R(c!1,n!R.cr)

]

------------------------------------------------------------

* Properties of pairs of bonds

------------------------------------------------------------

R(c!R.c,cr!R.n) => R(c!1,cr!2),R(c!1,n!2)

R(c!R.c,n!R.cr) => R(c!1,n!2),R(c!1,cr!2)

execution finished without any exception

Analysis launched at 2017/02/23 22:55:12 (GMT+0) on

testing-gce-b3e6d58e-efdc-402d-8d20-6c7eaa7dc903

Parsing ../kappa/reachability.ka...

done

Compiling...

Reachability analysis...

------------------------------------------------------------

* There are some non applyable rules

------------------------------------------------------------

rule 6: obs will never be applied.

------------------------------------------------------------

every agent may occur in the model

------------------------------------------------------------

* Non relational properties:

------------------------------------------------------------

E() => [ E(x) v E(x!R.x) ]

R() => [ R(c) v R(c!R.c) ]

R() => [ R(n) v R(n!R.cr) ]

R() => [ R(cr) v R(cr!R.n) ]

R() => [ R(x) v R(x!E.x) ]

------------------------------------------------------------

* Relational properties:

------------------------------------------------------------

R() =>

[

R(c,cr,n,x!E.x)

v R(c!R.c,cr!R.n,n,x!E.x)

v R(c!R.c,cr,n,x!E.x)

v R(c!R.c,cr,n!R.cr,x!E.x)

v R(c,cr,n,x)

]

------------------------------------------------------------

* Properties in connected agents

------------------------------------------------------------

R(c!1),R(c!1) =>

[

R(c!1,cr!R.n),R(c!1,cr)

v R(c!1,cr),R(c!1,cr)

v R(c!1,cr),R(c!1,cr!R.n)

]

R(c!1),R(c!1) =>

[

R(c!1,cr!R.n),R(c!1,n!R.cr)

v R(c!1,cr),R(c!1,n)

]

R(c!1),R(c!1) =>

[

R(c!1,n!R.cr),R(c!1,n)

v R(c!1,n),R(c!1,n)

v R(c!1,n),R(c!1,n!R.cr)

]

------------------------------------------------------------

* Properties of pairs of bonds

------------------------------------------------------------

R(c!R.c,cr!R.n) => R(c!1,cr!2),R(c!1,n!2)

R(c!R.c,n!R.cr) => R(c!1,n!2),R(c!1,cr!2)

execution finished without any exception

This result is displayed in the standard output, and it is made of six parts.

The ﬁrst two parts provide an enumeration of dead rules and dead agents. The next parts display what we call reﬁnement lemmas. A reﬁnement lemma is made of a precondition (on the left of the implication symbol) that is a site graph, and a postcondition (on the right of the implication symbol) that is a list of site graphs. Each site graph in the post-condition is a reﬁnement of the precondition (the position of agent matters: the $n$-th agent in the precondition corresponds to the $n$-th agent in each site graph in the postcondition, but site graphs in a postcondition may have more agents than the site graph in the corresponding precondition). The meaning of a reﬁnement lemma is that every embedding between its precondition into a reachable state can be reﬁned/extended into an embedding from one site graph in its postcondition into the same reachable state. This way, a reﬁnement lemma provides an enumeration of all the potential contexts for the precondition.

We now detail the six diﬀerent parts:

- Detection of dead rules. A rule is called dead, if there is no trace starting from the
initial state in which this rule is applied. The analysis reports the list of the rules it
has detected to be dead. Due to the over-approximation, it may happen that a dead
rule is not discovered by the analysis. Yet, every rule that is reported as dead, is dead
indeed.
In our example, we notice that the rule ‘obs’ can never be trigered.

- Detection of dead agents. An agent is called dead, if there is no trace starting from
the initial state with at least one state in which this agent occurs. The analysis reports
the list of the agents it has detected to be dead. Due to the over-approximation, it
may happen that a dead agent is not discovered by the analysis. Yet, every agent that
is reported as dead, is dead indeed.
In our example, there are no dead agent.

- Non-relational properties. The analysis detects for each kind of site, the set
of states this site can take. Due to the over-approximation, the analysis reports a
super-set of the set of the potential states. Yet, we are sure that a given site only take
states within this set.
In our example, the site cr of R may be free, or bound to the site n of an agent R.

- Relational properties. The analysis detects some relationships among the states
of packs of sites within each agent, hence capturing potential valuations for local
views [11, 6]. Due to the over-approximation of the analysis, the analysis may fail
in discovering a relationship. But each relationship that is found by the analysis, is
satisﬁed.
In our example, the states of the sites c, cr, n, and x of R are entangled with a relational property (othewise, we would have ${5}^{2}$ elements in the post-condition).

- Properties in connected agent. When two agents are connected, there may be a
relation among the states of theirs respective sites. This abstraction [13] collects for
each kind of bonds, the relation between the state of one site in the ﬁrst agent and
the state of one site in the second agent. Due to the over-approximation, the analysis
reports a super-set of the set of the potential pairs of states.
This abstraction aimed at capturing information about protein transportation. It is quite common to model the location of a protein as the internal state of a ﬁctitious site. With such an encoding, it might be important to ensure that two connected proteins, are always located in the same location. This abstraction focuses on this kind of properties.

- Properties of pairs of bonds.
It might be interesting to know whether a protein can be bound to another protein twice simultaneously, and whether a protein can be bound to two instances of a same protein simultaneously. This abstraction [13] captures this kind of constraint. It can be used to prove that some proteins do not polymerize.

In our example, when a R has its sites cr and c bound, they are necessarily bound to the same instance of R. The same statement holds for the sites cr and n.

Kappa Static Analyzer (61977f7) (without Tk interface)

Analysis launched at 2017/02/23 22:55:12 (GMT+0) on

testing-gce-b3e6d58e-efdc-402d-8d20-6c7eaa7dc903

Parsing ../kappa/reachability.ka...

done

Compiling...

Reachability analysis...

execution finished without any exception

Analysis launched at 2017/02/23 22:55:12 (GMT+0) on

testing-gce-b3e6d58e-efdc-402d-8d20-6c7eaa7dc903

Parsing ../kappa/reachability.ka...

done

Compiling...

Reachability analysis...

execution finished without any exception

Applying rule 0: E.R:

the precondition is satisfied

rule 0: E.R is applied for the first time

Updating the views for E(x!)

E(x!R@x)

Updating the views for R(x!,c!,cr!,n!)

R(x!E@x,c!free,cr!free,n!free)

the precondition is satisfied

rule 0: E.R is applied for the first time

Updating the views for E(x!)

E(x!R@x)

Updating the views for R(x!,c!,cr!,n!)

R(x!E@x,c!free,cr!free,n!free)

Applying rule 0: E.R:

the precondition is satisfied

rule 0: E.R is applied for the first time

(rule 1: E/R) should be investigated

(rule 1: E/R) should be investigated

Updating the views for E(x!)

E(x!R@x)

Updating the views for R(x!,c!,cr!,n!)

R(x!E@x,c!free,cr!free,n!free)

Update information about potential sites accross domain

R(c!1,x!E.x),R(c!1,x!E.x)

(rule 0: E.R) should be investigated

the precondition is satisfied

rule 0: E.R is applied for the first time

(rule 1: E/R) should be investigated

(rule 1: E/R) should be investigated

Updating the views for E(x!)

E(x!R@x)

Updating the views for R(x!,c!,cr!,n!)

R(x!E@x,c!free,cr!free,n!free)

Update information about potential sites accross domain

R(c!1,x!E.x),R(c!1,x!E.x)

(rule 0: E.R) should be investigated

Now we describe the options that are available on this sub-tab.

The option --compute-reachability-analysis can be used to switch on/oﬀ then reachability analysis.

The option --enable-every-domain can be used to switch on every abstract domain, whereas the option --disable-every-domain can be used to switch oﬀ every abstract domain.

The option --contact-map-domain impacts the way side-eﬀects are handled with during the analysis. In static mode, we consider that every bond that occurs syntactically in initial state, in the rhs of a rule, or in a introduction directive of a perturbation, may be released by side-eﬀects. In dynamic mode, only the bond that has been encountered so far during the analysis are considered.

The option --views-domain can be used to switch on/oﬀ the views domains that combine the non-relational analysis and the relational analysis.

The option --double-bonds-domain can be used to switch on/oﬀ the analysis of potential double bonds between between proteins.

The option --site-accross-bonds-domain can be used to switch on/oﬀ the analysis of the relations among the states of the sites in connected proteins.

It is possible to get more details about the computation of the analysis by tuning the verbosity level of the view analysis:

- With the option --verbosity-level-for-reachability-analysis Mute, nothing is displayed. Even the result of the analysis is omitted (eg. see Fig. 7.4).
- With the option --verbosity-level-for-reachability-analysis Low, only the result of the analysis is displayed (by default).
- With the option --verbosity-level-for-reachability-analysis Medium, the
analysis also describes which rules are applied and in which order.
When trying to apply a rule, the analysis may detect that the rule cannot be applied yet because the precondition is not satisﬁed at the current state of the iteration (eg. see Fig. 7.5). Otherwise, the analysis can apply the rule and update the state of the iteration accordingly (eg. see Fig. 7.6).

- With the option --verbosity-level-for-reachability-analysis High, the
analysis also describes which patterns are discovered.
In particular, at the beginning of the iteration, the analysis prompts the patterns of interest that occur in initial state (eg. see Fig. 7.7). Then, each time a rule is applied successfully, the analysis shows which new patterns have been discovered (eg. see Fig. 7.8).

- When new patterns are discovered, then, it is necessary to apply again any rule that
may operate over these patterns.
With the option --verbosity-level-for-reachability-analysis Full, the analysis also describes which rules are awaken by the discovery of a new pattern (see Fig. 7.9).

The option --output-mode-for-reachability-analysis can be used to tune the output of the analysis. The default mode is kappa. In mode, raw, patterns of interest are displayed extensionally. In mode, english, properties of interest are explained in English. The option --use-natural-language can be used to switch on/oﬀ the translation of properties in natural language: when the option is disabled, each relationship is described in extension.

Trace analysis is a reﬁnement of reachability analysis that additionaly explains how one agent can go from a given view to another one, following a path that we call a local trace. Thus the set of the local traces for a given agent can be described as a transition system among the views for a given agent: in this transition system, the nodes are local views; introduction arrows correspond to either initial states, or creation rules; transitions denote a potential conformation change of an agent, from one local views to another one, due to the application of a given rule.

We consider the following example:

1 %init: 1 P()

2 %init: 1 K()

3

4 ’a1+’ P(a1~u) -> P(a1~p) @1

5 ’b1+’ P(a1~p,b1~u) -> P(a1~p,b1~p) @1

6 ’a1-’ P(a1~p,b1~u) -> P(a1~u,b1~u) @1

7 ’b1-’ P(b1~p,g) -> P(b1~u,g) @1

8 ’a2+’ P(tab:siga2~u) -> P(a2~p) @1

9 ’a2-’ P(a2~p,g) -> P(a2~u,g) @1

10 ’b2+’ P(a2~p,b2~u) -> P(a2~p,b2~p) @1

11 ’b2-’ P(b2~p,g) -> P(b2~u,g) @1

12 ’P.K’ P(a1~p,a2~p,b1~p,b2~p,g),K(x) -> P(a1~p,a2~p,b1~p,b2~p,g!1),K(x!1) @1

13 ’P/K’ P(a1~p,a2~p,b1~p,b2~p,g!1),K(x!1) -> P(a1~p,a2~p,b1~p,b2~p,g),K(x) @1

2 %init: 1 K()

3

4 ’a1+’ P(a1~u) -> P(a1~p) @1

5 ’b1+’ P(a1~p,b1~u) -> P(a1~p,b1~p) @1

6 ’a1-’ P(a1~p,b1~u) -> P(a1~u,b1~u) @1

7 ’b1-’ P(b1~p,g) -> P(b1~u,g) @1

8 ’a2+’ P(tab:siga2~u) -> P(a2~p) @1

9 ’a2-’ P(a2~p,g) -> P(a2~u,g) @1

10 ’b2+’ P(a2~p,b2~u) -> P(a2~p,b2~p) @1

11 ’b2-’ P(b2~p,g) -> P(b2~u,g) @1

12 ’P.K’ P(a1~p,a2~p,b1~p,b2~p,g),K(x) -> P(a1~p,a2~p,b1~p,b2~p,g!1),K(x!1) @1

13 ’P/K’ P(a1~p,a2~p,b1~p,b2~p,g!1),K(x!1) -> P(a1~p,a2~p,b1~p,b2~p,g),K(x) @1

Typing the following instruction:

KaSa protein2x2.ka --reset-all --compute-local-traces

will perform the trace analysis on the model protein2x2ka, and produce two dot format ﬁles Agent_trace_K_x^.dot and Agent_trace.P.a1_.a2_.b1_.b2_.g^.dot. The output repository can be changed thanks to the command line options –output-directory and –output-local-trace-directory. Moreover, ﬁle names is made of the preﬁx Agent_trace, followed by the kind of protein and the list of the sites of interest (the symbol ‘^’ denotes a binding state, and the symbol ‘_’ an internal state).

The transition system that describes the local traces for the agents of kind $P$ is descrided in Figure 7.11. We notice that the nodes of this transition system are labelled with the states of the sites of $P$. The internal state of a site $x$ is denoted as $x\sim u$ (meaning that the site $x$ has state $u$, whereas the binding state of a site $x$ is denoted as $x!\mathit{\text{free}}$, when the site is free, and as $x!K@x$ when the site $x$ is bound to the site $x$ of a given agent of kind $K$.

We notice that the transition system that is given in Fig. 7.11 contains too many nodes. We can coarse-grain this transition system thanks to the following option:

–use-macrotransitions-in-local-traces.

Typing the following instruction:

KaSa protein2x2.ka --reset-all --compute-local-traces

--use-macrotransitions-in-local-traces

--use-macrotransitions-in-local-traces

will perform the trace analysis on the model protein2x2ka, and produce two dot format ﬁles Agent_trace_K_x^.dot and Agent_trace.P.a1_.a2_.b1_.b2_.g^.dot. The name of the output repository can be changed thanks to the command line options –output-directory and –output-local-trace-directory. This time, the ﬁles describe a coarse-graining of the corresponding transition systems.

For instance, the coarse-grained transition system for the local traces of the proteins of kind $P$, is given in Figure 7.12. This coarse-grained transition system is a compact implicit encoding of the transition system in Figure 7.11. It is obtained by exploiting the fact that locally, the behavior of the pair of states ${a}_{1}$ and ${b}_{1}$ is independent from the behavior of the pair of states ${a}_{2}$ and ${b}_{2}$, until these four sites are phosphorylated, so that the site $g$ can get bound.

More formally, in that transition system, some states are microstates (in a microstate, the state of each site is documented); some others are macrostates: (in a macrostate, the states of only a subset of site is documented). Thus a macrostate ${v}^{\u266f}$ can be seen intensionally as a part of a local view, but also extensionnaly as the set $\gamma \left({v}^{\u266f}\right)$ of the local views they are a subpart of. A microstate $v$ can be described by any sequence $\left({v}_{i}^{\u266f}\right)$ of macrostates prodiding that the intersection $\bigcap \gamma \left({v}_{i}^{\u266f}\right)$ of the extensional denotation $\gamma \left({v}_{i}^{\u266f}\right)$ of these macrostates ${v}_{i}^{\u266f}$, is equal to the singleton $\left\{v\right\}$; moreover a transition between two microstates $v$ and ${v}^{\prime}$ can be described by any transition between one macro state ${v}^{\u266f}$ and another one ${v{}^{\prime}}^{\u266f}$, provided that there exists a sequence of macrostate $\left({v}_{i}^{\u266f}\right)$ such that the sequence $\left({v}^{\u266f},\left({v}_{i}^{\u266f}\right)\right)$ denotes the microstate $v$ and the sequence $\left({v{}^{\prime}}^{\u266f},\left({v}_{i}^{\u266f}\right)\right)$ denotes the microstate ${v}^{\prime}$.

Such coarse-grained transition system can be geometrically interpreted as a simplicial complex [10].

As a microstate could be decomposed into several sequences of macrostates (including the trivial sequence containing only the microstate itself), the system may jump spontaneously (by using a $\mathit{\epsilon}$ transition) from one representation to another representation. This corresponds to the intersection between several simplexes in the corresponding simpliﬁcial complex.

Although the semantics of a coarse-grainged transition system is fully deﬁned by its labelled transitions, it is useful to annotate the graph by some information about the relation between the denotation of each macrostate. By default, we use hypertlinks to relate each macrostate $v$ (including each microstate) to the set of its immediate subparts ${v}^{\prime}$. In such a hyperlink, $v$ is connected via a dotted arrow, whereas each immediate subpart is connected via a dashed arrow.

More options are available in expert mode, but they are not documented yet.

The contact map of a model is an object that may help modelers checking the consistency of the rule set they use. The contact map is statically computed and does not depend on kinetic rates nor initial conditions.

Typing the following instruction:

KaSa abc.ka –reset-all –compute-contact-map

will produce a dot format ﬁle named contact.dot. The name of the output ﬁle and the directory can be changed thanks to the command line options –output-contact-map and –output-directory. The directory is assumed to exist. The ﬁle will be overwritten if it exists. All the options related to the computation of the contact map can be accessed on the sub-tab 4_Contact_map of the graphical interface (see Fig. 7.15).

The contact map summarises the diﬀerent types of agent, their interface and the potential binding between sites. It is an over approximation, thus if the contact map indicates a potential bond, it does not mean that it is always possible to reach a state in which two sites of these kinds are bound, but if the contact map indicates no bond between two sites, it means that it is NOT possible to reach a state in which two sites of these kinds are bound together.

The contact map for the abc.ka model deﬁned in Chapter 5 is given in Figure 7.14. On this map, we notice that there are three kinds of agent, namely $A$, $B$, and $C$. Agents of kind $A$ have two sites $x$ and $c$, that bear no internal state (they appear in yellow only), agents of kind $B$ have one site $x$, that bears no internal state (they appear in yellow only), and agents of kind $C$ have two sites ${x}_{1}$ and ${x}_{2}$ with both a binding state and an internal state (they appear both in yellow and in green). We notice that when a site can bear both an internal state and a binding state, they are considered as two diﬀerent sites in the contact map. Additionally, the contact map indicates that sites $x$ of the agents of kind $A$ can be bound to the site $x$ of an agent of kind $B$ and that sites $c$ of the agents of kind $A$ can be bound to the agents of kind $C$ either on the site ${x}_{1}$, or on the site ${x}_{2}$.

The inﬂuence map of a model is an object that may help modelers checking the consistency of the rule set they use.

Typing the following instruction:

KaSa abc.ka –reset-all –compute-influence-map

will produce a dot format ﬁle named influence.dot. The name of the output ﬁle and the directory can be changed thanks to the command line options –output-influence-map and –output-directory. The directory is assumed to exist. The ﬁle will be overwritten if it exists. All the options related to the computation of the inﬂuence map can be accessed on the sub-tab 5_Influence_map of the graphical interface (see Fig. 7.15). Two formats are available for the output: inﬂuence map can be generated in DOT or HTML format. The format can be choosen thanks to the command line option –influence-map-format.

Unlike the ﬂux map, the inﬂuence map is statically computed and does not depend on kinetic
rates nor the quantities in initial conditions. It describes how rules may potentially inﬂuence each
other during a simulation. KaSa will produce a dot format ﬁle containing the inﬂuence relation
over all rules and observables of the model. The produced graph visualised using a circular
rendering^{1}
is given in Figure 7.16. Observables are represented as circular nodes and rules as rectangular
nodes. The labels of the nodes are either the label of the rule or of the observable
(if available), otherwise it is made of a unique identiﬁer allocated by KaSa followed
by the kappa deﬁnition of the rule/observable. Edges are decorated with the list of
embeddings (separated by a semi-colon) allowing the identiﬁcation of agents in both rules's
right hand sides/left hand sides. More precisely, for positive inﬂuences, the notation
$\left[i\to j\right]$ denotes a pair of embeddings
from the agent number $i$
of the origin's right hand side and from the agent number
$j$ of the target's left hand
side and the notation $\left[i\star \to j\right]$
denotes a pair of embeddings from an agent attached to the agent number
$i$ of the
origin's left hand side, which have been freed by side eﬀect and from the agent number
$j$
of the target's left hand side; for negative inﬂuences, the notation
$\left[i\to j\right]$ denotes a pair of embeddings
from the agent number $i$
of the origin's left hand side and from the agent number
$j$ of the target's left hand
side and the notation $\left[i\star \to j\right]$
denotes a pair of embeddings from an agent attached to the agent number
$i$ of the
origin's left hand side, which have been freed by side eﬀect and from the agent number
$j$ of the
target's left hand side; Observables have no inﬂuence, but they can be inﬂuenced by rules, if the
rule can increase or decrease their value.

More formally, consider the rules $r:L\to R$ and $s:{L}^{\prime}\to {R}^{\prime}$. One wishes to know whether it is possible that the application of rule $r$ over a graph $G$ creates a new instance of rule $s$ (which is called a positive inﬂuence and that is described by green arrows in the inﬂuence map), or destroy a previous instance of rule $s$ (which is called negative inﬂuence and that is described by red arrows in the inﬂuence map). In Fig. 7.17, we illustrate the construction of positive inﬂuences due to overlap of the left hand side of a rule and the right hand side of another rule on some sites that are modiﬁed by the former one.

The current implementation has the following limitations:

- Currently, only observables that are deﬁned as patterns are taken into account.
- Not atomic observables which are deﬁned as algebraic expressions are not taken into account yet. The observables are ignored.
- The inﬂuence map does not take into account indirect inﬂuences due to perturbations (which could arises when the application of a rule triggers a perturbation which would create some agents or increase/decrease the value of some variables).
- Token are not taken into yet. They are currently ignored.
- Positive/negative inﬂuence of time is not taken into account either.

Lastly, KaSa computes an over-approximation of the inﬂuence map. They may show an inﬂuence despite the fact that there can be no actual one. But if it shows no inﬂuence it means that either there are NO such inﬂuence, or that we are in a case that is not covered yet as itemised previously.

Three levels of precision are available: Low, Medium, and High. The level of precision can be changed thanks to the command line option –influence-map-accuracy-level.

At low precision, an inﬂuence is detected if one rule change at least one bit of information (the internal state of a site, the binding state of a site), in favor/defavor of the application another rule. This abstraction level ignore completely the context of application of rules, and just focuses on modiﬁcations.

At medium precision, the analysis checks that both rules have a common context.

At high precision, the analysis checks that such common context is realizable taking into account the species that have been declared as initial states and the potential species introduction in perturbations. High resolution inﬂuence is parameterized by the accuracy of the reachability analysis. It may happen that a given context is infeasible, but that this is not detected by the analysis.

Let us illustrate these three levels of accuracy by a case study.

We consider the following model.

1 %agent: A(w~u~p,x~u~p,y~u~p,z~u~p)

2

3 A(x~u) -> A(x~p) @1

4 A(x~p,y~u) -> A(x~p,y~p) @1

5 A(y~p,z~u) -> A(y~p,z~p) @1

6 A(x~u,z~p,w~u) -> A(x~u,z~p,w~p) @1

7 A(x~u,z~u) -> A(x~u,z~p) @1

8 A(x~p,w~p) -> A(x~p,w~u) @1

9

10 %init: 10 A()

2

3 A(x~u) -> A(x~p) @1

4 A(x~p,y~u) -> A(x~p,y~p) @1

5 A(y~p,z~u) -> A(y~p,z~p) @1

6 A(x~u,z~p,w~u) -> A(x~u,z~p,w~p) @1

7 A(x~u,z~u) -> A(x~u,z~p) @1

8 A(x~p,w~p) -> A(x~p,w~u) @1

9

10 %init: 10 A()

The low resolution inﬂuence map is given in Fig. 7.18. There is a positive arc (in green) from a rule to another one whenever the application of the former pushes at least one bit of information towards the application of the later; whereas there is a negative arc (in red) from a rule to another one whenever the former pulls at least one bit of information away from the application of the later.

The medium resolution inﬂuence map is given in Fig. 7.19. Every arc corresponding to incompatible contexts have been removed. In our example, these are the arcs from the rule $3$ and the rule $5$ (in both direction). Despite the fact that the rule $3$ may phosphorylate the site w which is required to apply the rule $5$, no instance of the rule $5$ may be applied thanks to the application of the rule $3$ right after, because after the application of the rule $3$ the state of the site $x$ is necessarily unphosphorylated, whereas it has to be phosphorylated for the rule $5$ to be applied. The same kind of explanation holds to remove the arc from the rule $5$ to the rule $3$.

There are some structural invariants in these models. We give in Fig. 7.21 the log of the computation of the high resolution contact map. It turns out that whenever the site y of an agent is phosphorylated, then the site x of this protein is phosphorylated as well. Thus we can deduce that the positive arc from the rules $2$ and $3$, and the negative arcs from the rules $2$ and $4$ (in both direction) are false positive unless we change the set of the species in the initial state or in the perturbations. Thus we obtain the high resolution inﬂuence map given in Fig. 7.20.

Kappa Static Analyzer (61977f7) (without Tk interface)

Analysis launched at 2017/02/23 22:55:10 (GMT+0) on

testing-gce-b3e6d58e-efdc-402d-8d20-6c7eaa7dc903

Parsing ../kappa/influence.ka...

done

Compiling...

Reachability analysis...

------------------------------------------------------------

every rule may be applied

------------------------------------------------------------

every agent may occur in the model

------------------------------------------------------------

* Non relational properties:

------------------------------------------------------------

A() => [ A(x~u) v A(x~p) ]

A() => [ A(w~u) v A(w~p) ]

A() => [ A(y~u) v A(y~p) ]

A() => [ A(z~u) v A(z~p) ]

------------------------------------------------------------

* Relational properties:

------------------------------------------------------------

A(w~p) => A(w~p,z~p)

A(y~p) => A(x~p,y~p)

------------------------------------------------------------

* Properties in connected agents

------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------

* Properties of pairs of bonds

------------------------------------------------------------

execution finished without any exception

Analysis launched at 2017/02/23 22:55:10 (GMT+0) on

testing-gce-b3e6d58e-efdc-402d-8d20-6c7eaa7dc903

Parsing ../kappa/influence.ka...

done

Compiling...

Reachability analysis...

------------------------------------------------------------

every rule may be applied

------------------------------------------------------------

every agent may occur in the model

------------------------------------------------------------

* Non relational properties:

------------------------------------------------------------

A() => [ A(x~u) v A(x~p) ]

A() => [ A(w~u) v A(w~p) ]

A() => [ A(y~u) v A(y~p) ]

A() => [ A(z~u) v A(z~p) ]

------------------------------------------------------------

* Relational properties:

------------------------------------------------------------

A(w~p) => A(w~p,z~p)

A(y~p) => A(x~p,y~p)

------------------------------------------------------------

* Properties in connected agents

------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------

* Properties of pairs of bonds

------------------------------------------------------------

execution finished without any exception

Frequently asked questions

If the progress bar seems stalled, it does not necessarily mean that the simulation is blocked. In particular when a simulation is triggered with a time limit (-l option of the command line) it might only indicate that the bio clock is stalled while computation events still occur. Recall that the average (bio) time one has to wait in order to apply a rule is $1\u2215A$, where $A$ is the sum of all the rule activities (which is equal to the number of instances that a rule has, times its kinetic rate). Whenever the number of occurrences of a rule grows too fast (if new agents are created during the simulation for instance), or if the kinetic rate of a rule is deﬁned by a function that grows rapidly, the average time increment might tend to 0 and if it remains so for a while, it will block the progress bar whose advance is proportional to the bio time [T].

In order to make sure that KaSim is not incorrectly blocked you may wish to plot the event clock against time clock using the observable %obs: 'events' [E] or run the simulation using an event limit (-e option of the command line) instead of a time limit.

Null events is a way for KaSim to compensate for some over approximation it is doing, in order deal with large simulations more eﬃciently. They usually do not impact signiﬁcantly the performances of the simulator, unless the model contains rules using the special notation to deal with ambiguous molecularity (see Section 3.4.5). With pure Kappa rules, the ratio $r$ of null event over productive ones (that you can track using the observable %obs: 'r' [E-]/[E]) should tend to 0 when models have a lot of agents.

Make sure you have %obs or %plot instructions in your KF. Also make sure to use a reasonable value for the -p option in the command line to tell KaSim how often you wish to have points on your curves.

The value of a kappa expression $E$ is equal to the number of embeddings it has in the current mixture $M$. Embeddings are maps from agents in $E$ to agents in $M$. If $E$ has symmetries then every permutation of $E$ will be counted as a new embedding. For instance let $E=$A(x!1),A(x!1) and let $M=$A(x!1,y~p),A(x!1,y~u). KaSim will count two instances of $E$ in $M$: the one mapping the ﬁrst A of $E$ to the ﬁrst A of $M$ and the one mapping the ﬁrst A of $E$ to the second A of $M$.

The value nan means "Not a Number". It is generated when a plotted variable is inﬁnite. Make sure this variable is not divided by zero at some point.

[1] Ferdinanda Camporesi and Jérôme Feret. Formal reduction of rule-based models. In Postproceedings of the Twenty-seventh Conference on the Mathematical Foundations of Programming Semantics, MFPS XXVII, volume 276C of Electonic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, pages 31–61, Pittsburg, USA, 25–28 May 2011. Elsevier Science Publishers.

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[3] Vincent Danos, Jérôme Feret, Walter Fontana, Russell Harmer, Jonathan Hayman, Jean Krivine, Chris Thompson-Walsh, and Glynn Winskel. Graphs, rewriting and pathway reconstruction for rule-based models. In Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, editor, FSTTCS 2012 - IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science, volume 18 of LIPIcs, pages 276–288, 2012.

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activity, 8, 22, 43

agent signature, 20

agent signature, 15, 16, 19, 20, 28, 34

agents, 15

algebraic expression, 18, 22

algebraic expression, 23, 26, 37, 43

agent signature, 20

agent signature, 15, 16, 19, 20, 28, 34

agents, 15

algebraic expression, 18, 22

algebraic expression, 23, 26, 37, 43

bi-directional rule, 19

boolean expression, 38

causal ﬂow, 41, 42

causality, 41

chemical notation, 19

comments, 15

data ﬁle, 26, 28, 78

declaration, 15, 19, 22, 26, 28, 34, 37, 40, 41, 43, 46

default state, 20

don’t care don’t write, 20

don’t care don’t write, 17, 19, 28

edit rules, 21

eﬀect, 37, 39

embedding, 78

event, 8, 27

ﬂux map, 43

graph, 8

hybrid rules, 19, 22

initial condition, 15, 28

internal state, 16

kappa ﬁle, 15, 16, 18, 26, 28, 34, 37, 46, 47, 78

kinetic rate, 23, 26

deterministic rate constant, 23

stochastic rate constant, 23

left hand side, 18

link type, 18

longest preﬁx convention, 20

mixture, 8, 20, 25, 28, 39–41, 46, 78

null event, 27, 77

perturbation, 15, 37

one shot, 37

precondition, 37

rate, 8

right hand side, 18

rule, 15, 18

semi-link, 18

side eﬀect, 21

signature, 34

simulation package, 46

strong compression, 42

tokens, 15

variable, 15, 22, 26, 37

weak compression, 42